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Full text of "Arts education in public elementary and secondary schools, 1999-2000"

NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



STATISTICAL ANALYSIS REPORT 



JUNE 2002 




I 



in Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools: 
1999-2000 





U.S. Department of Education 
Fast Response surve^ system Office of Educational Research and Improvement 



NCES 2002-131 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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MIS 1999-6532 



NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



Statistical Analysis Report June 2002 



Arts Education in Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools: 1999-2000 




Fast Response Survey System 



Nancy Carey 
Mathematica 

Brian Kleiner 
Rebecca Porch 
Elizabeth Farris 
Westat 



Shelley Burns 

Project Officer 

National Center for Education Statistics 



U.S. Department of Education 

Office of Educational Research and Improvement NCES 2002-1 3 



U.S. Department of Education 

Rod Paige 
Secretary 

Office of Educational Research and Improvement 

Graver J. Whitehurst 
Assistant Secretary 

National Center for Education Statistics 

Gary W. Phillips 
Deputy Commissioner 

The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting, analyzing, 
and reporting data related to education in the United States and other nations. It fulfills a congressional 
mandate to collect, collate, analyze, and report full and complete statistics on the condition of education in 
the United States; conduct and publish reports and specialized analyses of the meaning and significance 
of such statistics; assist state and local education agencies in improving their statistical systems; and 
review and report on education activities in foreign countries. 

NCES activities are designed to address high priority education data needs; provide consistent, reliable, 
complete, and accurate indicators of education status and trends; and report timely, useful, and high 
quality data to the U.S. Department of Education, the Congress, the states, other education policymakers, 
practitioners, data users, and the general public. 

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1990 K Street, NW Suite 900 

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June 2002 

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Suggested Citation 

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Arts Education in Public 
Elementary and Secondary Schools, 1999-2000. NCES 2002-131, by Nancy Carey, Brian Kleiner, 
Rebecca Porch, and Elizabeth Farris. Project Officer: Shelley Burns. Washington, DC: 2002. 

Contact: 

Shelley Burns 

(202)502-7319 

email: Shelley.Burns@ed.gov 



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 



Background 

During the last decade, arts instruction has 
received increasing attention as an important 
aspect of education. The Improving America's 
Schools Act of 1994 (U.S. Public Law 103-382), 
and the release of the voluntary National 
Standards for Arts Education (Consortium of 
National Arts Education Association 1994), 
demonstrated this increase in attention. By 1998, 
there were no national data sources that 
specifically addressed the condition of arts 
education in the nation's public schools. To fill 
this data gap, the National Endowment for the 
Arts, the Office of Educational Research and 
Improvement (OERI), and the Office of Reform 
Assistance and Dissemination (ORAD) of OERI 
requested that surveys be conducted under the Fast 
Response Survey System (FRSS) of the National 
Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the U.S. 
Department of Education. The purpose of this 
report is to provide a national profile of the status 
of arts education in the nation's regular 1 public 
schools during the 1999-2000 school year. 
Specifically, this report presents information on 
the characteristics of public elementary and 
secondary school arts education programs, 
including data on the availability of instruction in 
the arts, staffing, funding, supplemental programs 
and activities, and administrative support of arts 
education. 

This report is based on data that were collected 
from elementary and secondary school principals 
and from elementary school arts specialists and 
classroom teachers during the 1999-2000 school 
year. The teacher-level component provides data 
on the educational backgrounds and experience of 
arts teachers and the curricula and learning 
environments that characterize arts education. The 
school-level results presented in this report are 



based on questionnaire data from 640 public 
elementary school principals and 686 public 
secondary school principals (or their designated 
respondents). The elementary school teacher 
findings are based on data collected from 453 
music specialists, 331 visual arts specialists, and 
497 regular classroom teachers. The responses to 
the school questionnaires were weighted to 
produce national estimates that represent all 
regular public elementary and secondary schools 
in the United States; those for the teacher surveys 
were weighted to produce national estimates that 
represent all regular elementary school classroom 
teachers, music specialists, and visual arts 
specialists. 



Key Findings 

Arts Education in Public Elementary Schools 

The elementary school survey addressed a variety 
of topics regarding characteristics of arts education 
programs in public elementary schools during the 
1999-2000 school year. In 1999-2000, music 
instruction and visual arts instruction were 
available in most of the nation's public elementary 
schools (94 and 87 percent, respectively). Dance 
and drama/theatre were available in less than one- 
third of elementary schools (20 and 19 percent, 
respectively). Results of the elementary school 
survey also indicate that: 

• Overall, 72 percent of elementary schools that 
offered music instruction and 55 percent of 
elementary schools that offered visual arts 
instruction employed full-time specialists to 
teach these subjects. Full-time specialists in 
dance were employed by 24 percent of 
elementary schools that offered this subject, 
and full-time specialists in drama/theatre were 
employed by 16 percent of elementary schools 
that offered it. 



1 Regular school is defined as a public elementary/secondary school 
that does not focus primarily on vocational, special, or alternative 
education. 



Ill 



Sixty-seven percent of elementary schools that 
offered music had dedicated rooms with 
special equipment for instruction in this 
subject. Of the schools that offered visual 
arts, 56 percent had dedicated rooms with 
special equipment for visual arts. 
Fourteen percent of elementary schools that 
offered dance had dedicated rooms with 
special equipment for dance instruction, and 
13 percent of schools with drama/theatre had 
dedicated rooms with special equipment for 
this subject. 

Seventy-seven percent of regular public 
elementary schools sponsored field trips to 
arts performances during the 1998-99 school 
year, and 65 percent sponsored field trips to 
art galleries or museums. Thirty-eight percent 
sponsored visiting artists, 22 percent 
sponsored artists-in-residence, and 51 percent 
of public elementary schools sponsored after- 
school activities that included the arts during 
the 1998-99 school year. 



Arts Education in Public Secondary Schools 

Music and visual arts instruction were offered in 
most of the nation's public secondary schools (90 
and 93 percent, respectively) in 1999-2000. 
Dance and drama/theatre instruction were less 
commonly offered within secondary schools (14 
and 48 percent, respectively). Further, the 
secondary school survey indicates that: 

• Most public secondary schools that offered 
music, visual arts, dance, and drama/theatre 
employed full-time specialists to teach these 
subjects, with 91 percent reporting one or 
more full-time music specialists, 94 percent 
reporting one or more full-time visual arts 
specialists, 77 percent reporting one or more 
full-time dance specialists, and 84 percent 
reporting one or more full-time drama/theatre 
specialists. 

• In 1999-2000, 91 percent of public secondary 
schools that offered music instruction had 
dedicated music rooms with special equipment 
for teaching the subject, and 87 percent of 
those with visual arts instruction had dedicated 



art rooms with special equipment. Of the 
schools that offered dance, 41 percent 
provided dedicated dance spaces with special 
equipment, and of those that offered 
drama/theatre, 53 percent provided dedicated 
theatre spaces with special equipment. 

Field trips to arts performances were 
sponsored by 69 percent of regular public 
secondary schools during the 1998-99 school 
year, and 68 percent sponsored field trips to 
art galleries or museums. Thirty-four percent 
of secondary schools sponsored visiting 
artists, 18 percent sponsored artists-in- 
residence, and 73 percent sponsored after- 
school activities in the arts during the 1998-99 
school year. 



Elementary Music Specialists, Visual Arts 
Specialists, and Self-Contained Classroom 
Teachers 

The teacher surveys gathered information related 
to the preparation, working environments, and 
instructional practices of public elementary school 
music and visual arts specialists and non-arts 
classroom teachers. Results from the three teacher 
surveys indicate that: 

• In 1999-2000, 45 percent of music specialists 
and 39 percent of visual arts specialists had a 
master's degree in their respective fields of 
study or in a related field. Forty-five percent 
of regular classroom teachers had a master's 
degree. 

• Arts specialists participated in a variety of 
professional development activities. For 
instance, 72 percent of music specialists and 
79 percent of visual arts specialists reported 
professional development activities focusing 
on the integration of music or visual arts into 
other subject areas within the last 12 months. 

• A sizable majority of music and visual arts 
specialists felt that their participation in 
various professional development activities 
focusing on arts instruction improved their 
teaching skills to a moderate or great extent 
(69 to 75 percent). 



IV 



On a typical school day in 1999-2000, music 
specialists taught an average of six different 
classes of students. Visual arts specialists 
taught on average five classes on a typical 
school day. 

Visual arts specialists had more time set aside 
each week for planning or preparation during 
the regular school day than music specialists 
and classroom teachers (4.2 hours versus 3.6 
and 3.4 hours, respectively). 



• Forty-six percent of music specialists and 
44 percent of visual arts specialists strongly 
agreed with the statement that parents support 
them in their efforts to educate their children. 
Fifty-eight percent of music specialists and 
53 percent of visual arts specialists strongly 
agreed that they were supported by the 
administration at their schools. 



VI 



Table of Contents 

Chapter Page 

Executive Summary iii 

1 Introduction 1 

Arts Education: Perspectives and Approaches in U.S. Public Schools 2 

Study Methodology 3 

Organization of This Report 4 

2 Arts Education in Public Elementary Schools 5 

Highlights 5 

Availability and Characteristics of Arts Education Programs in 

Public Elementary Schools 5 

Availability of Arts Education Programs 6 

Characteristics of Music Instruction 8 

Characteristics of Visual Arts Instruction 17 

Characteristics of Dance Instruction 25 

Characteristics of Drama/Theatre Instruction 27 

Supplemental Arts-Related Activities in Public Elementary Schools 28 

Availability of Supplemental Programs and Activities 28 

Funding Supplemental Programs and Activities 30 

Administrative Support for Arts Education in Public Elementary Schools 3 1 

Mission Statements, School Goals, and Arts Reform 31 

Status of Arts Specialists and Programs in Public Elementary Schools 33 

3 Arts Education in Public Secondary Schools 37 

Highlights 37 

Availability and Characteristics of Arts Education Programs in 

Public Secondary Schools 37 

Availability of Arts Education Programs 37 

Characteristics of Music Instruction 38 

Characteristics of Visual Arts Instruction 46 

Characteristics of Dance Instruction 53 

Characteristics of Drama/Theatre Instruction 54 

Creative Writing as Arts Instruction 54 

Supplemental Arts-Related Activities in Public Secondary Schools 55 

Availability of Supplemental Programs and Activities 55 

Funding Supplemental Programs and Activities 56 



vn 



Table of Contents (continued) 

Chapter Page 

Administrative Support for Arts Education in Public Secondary Schools .... 57 

Status of Arts Specialists and Programs in Public Secondary Schools 57 

4 Elementary School Teachers of Music and Visual Arts 63 

Highlights 63 

Music and Visual Arts Specialists and Self-Contained Classroom Teachers 63 

Characteristics of Public Elementary School Arts Specialists and Classroom 

Teachers 64 

Teacher Background and Professional Development 66 

Teacher Education 66 

Teacher Certification 68 

Professional Development 69 

Work Environment 73 

Teaching Load and Time for Planning and Preparation 74 

Views of Arts Specialists on Facilities, Equipment, and Other Resources.... 75 

Status and Integration of Arts Education into Overall School Programs 77 

Support for Arts Education from Parents and School Staff 79 

Curriculum and Instruction in the Arts 79 

Goals and Objectives of Student Learning 81 

Assessment in the Arts 83 

Involvement in the Arts Outside of School 85 

5 Conclusions 87 

Arts Instruction in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools 87 

Elementary Schools 87 

Secondary Schools 88 

Differences by School Characteristics 88 

Arts Teachers in Public Elementary Schools 89 

Arts Education: 1999-2000 91 

References 93 



vm 



Table of Contents (continued) 
List of Appendices 

Appendix Page 

A Survey Methodology A-l 

B Tables of Standard Errors B-l 

C Survey Questionnaires C-l 



Table 



List of Text Tables 



Percent of public elementary schools offering instruction in various arts subjects, 
by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering music instruction 
indicating how frequently a typical student received instruction designated 
specifically for music, and average number of minutes per class period, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



3 Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering music instruction, 
according to the total number of hours that a typical student received instruction 
during the school year, and average hours per school year, by school 

characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 . 10 

4 Percent of public elementary schools offering music instruction, according to the 
position of the person(s) who provided the instruction, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 1 1 

5 Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering music instruction, 
according to the space used for teaching the subject, by school characteristics: 

Academic year 1999-2000 12 

6 Percent of public elementary schools offering music instruction, according to the 
availability of a district curriculum guide in music, by school characteristics: 

Academic year 1999-2000 13 

7 Percent of public elementary schools reporting various kinds of music instruction, 
by the earliest grade at which the instruction was offered and the percent of 

students enrolled: Academic year 1998-99 15 

8 Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering visual arts instruction 
indicating how frequently a typical student received instruction designated 
specifically for visual arts, and average number of minutes per class period, by 

school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 17 



IX 



Table of Contents (continued) 

List of Text Tables 
Table Page 

9 Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering visual arts 
instruction, according to the total number of hours that a typical student received 
instruction during the school year, and average hours per school year, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 19 

10 Percent of public elementary schools offering visual arts instruction, according to 
the position of the person(s) who provided the instruction, by school 

characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 20 

1 1 Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering visual arts 
instruction, according to the space used for teaching the subject, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 21 

12 Percent of public elementary schools offering visual arts instruction, according to 
the availability of a district curriculum guide in visual arts, by school 

characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 22 

13 Percent of public elementary schools offering instruction in dance and 

drama/theatre, by various program characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 26 

14 Percent of public elementary schools that sponsored various supplemental arts 

education programs, by school characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 29 

15 Percent of public elementary schools that used various funding sources for 
supplemental arts education programs: Academic year 1998-99 30 

16 Percent of public elementary schools in which arts education was included in the 
mission statement or school improvement plan, or that were engaged in some 
reform initiative involving the arts, by school characteristics: Academic year 

1999-2000 32 

1 7 Percent of public elementary schools indicating that arts specialists have input in 
selected management issues related to arts instruction, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 33 

1 8 Percent of public elementary schools indicating various ways that arts programs 
and instruction are assessed, and the presence of a district-level arts coordinator, by 

school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 34 

19 Percent of public elementary school principals indicating the extent to which they 
believe individuals at the school and parents consider the arts an essential part of a 
high-quality education, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 36 

20 Percent of public secondary schools offering instruction in various arts subjects, by 

school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 39 



x 



Table of Contents (continued) 

List of Text Tables 
Table Page 

21 Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering music instruction, 
according to the number of different music courses taught, by school 

characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 40 

22 Percent of public secondary schools offering music instruction and reporting two or 
more full-time teachers on staff who taught music courses, by school 

characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 42 

23 Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering music instruction, 
according to the space used for teaching the subject, by school characteristics: 

Academic year 1999-2000 43 

24 Percent of public secondary schools offering music instruction and receiving funds 
from non-district sources to fund the music program, by school characteristics: 

Academic year 1999-2000 45 

25 Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering visual arts instruction, 
according to the number of different visual arts courses taught, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 47 

26 Percent of public secondary schools offering visual arts instruction and reporting 
two or more full-time teachers on staff who taught visual arts courses, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 49 

27 Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering visual arts instruction, 
according to the space used for teaching the subject, by school characteristics: 

Academic year 1999-2000 50 

28 Percent and percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering dance and 
drama/theatre instruction, by various program characteristics: Academic year 

1999-2000 53 

29 Percent of public secondary schools that sponsored various supplemental arts 

education programs, by school characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 56 

30 Percent of public secondary schools that used various funding sources for 

supplemental arts education programs: Academic year 1998-99 57 

3 1 Percent of public secondary schools in which arts education was included in the 
mission statement or school improvement plan, or that were engaged in some 
reform initiative involving the arts, by school characteristics: Academic year 

1999-2000 58 



XI 



Table of Contents (continued) 

List of Text Tables 
Table Page 

32 Percent of public secondary schools indicating that arts specialists have input in 
selected management issues related to arts instruction, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 59 

33 Percent of public secondary schools indicating various ways that arts programs and 
instruction are assessed, and the presence of a district-level arts coordinator, by 

school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 60 

34 Percent of public secondary school principals indicating the extent to which they 
believe individuals at the school and parents consider the arts an essential part of a 
high-quality education, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 61 

35 Number and percent of music specialists, visual arts specialists, and classroom 
teachers in public elementary schools, by teaching status: Academic year 1999- 

2000 64 

36 Percentage distribution of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts 
specialists, and classroom teachers indicating their number of years of teaching 
experience, both overall and in-field: Academic year 1999-2000 65 

37 Percentage distribution of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts 
specialists, and classroom teachers indicating the number of years they plan to 

continue teaching: Academic year 1999-2000 65 

38 Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers, by degrees held: Academic year 1999-2000 66 

39 Percent of public elementary school music and visual arts specialists with a degree 
in-field and who majored in various fields of study for a bachelor's or master's 

degree: Academic year 1999-2000 67 

40 Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers, by the types of teaching certificates held: Academic year 
1999-2000 68 

41 Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers indicating the number of hours spent in various professional 
development activities in the last 12 months, by content area: Academic year 
1999-2000 71 

42 Percentage distribution of public elementary school music and visual arts 
specialists, by the number of schools at which they teach: Academic year 1999— 

2000 74 



XII 



Table of Contents (continued) 

List of Text Tables 
Table Page 

43 Means for various indicators of teaching load for public elementary school music 

and visual arts specialists: Academic year 1999-2000 74 

44 Percentage distribution of public elementary school music and visual arts 
specialists indicating how adequate are various aspects of their schools' arts 

programs in support of their instruction: Academic year 1999-2000 76 

45 Percentage distribution of public elementary school music and visual arts 
specialists reporting frequency of participation in various collaborative activities 

related to arts instruction within the last 12 months: Academic year 1999-2000 77 

46 Percentage distribution of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts 
specialists, and classroom teachers reporting frequency of participation in various 
collaborative activities related to teaching within the last 12 months: Academic 

year 1999-2000 78 

47 Percentage distribution of public elementary school music and visual arts 
specialists indicating the degree to which they agree with various statements about 
how instruction in music and visual arts is viewed at their schools: Academic year 
1999-2000 79 

48 Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers reporting various characteristics of the arts curriculum that is 

taught at their schools: Academic year 1999-2000 80 

49 Percentage distribution of public elementary school classroom teachers, according 
to the extent to which they included the arts in their instruction, by type of activity: 
Academic year 1999-2000 81 

50 Percentage distribution of public elementary school music specialists reporting the 
degree to which they emphasize various goals or objectives of student learning: 
Academic year 1999-2000 82 

5 1 Percentage distribution of public elementary school visual arts specialists reporting 
the degree to which they emphasize various goals or objectives of student learning: 
Academic year 1999-2000 83 

52 Percentage distribution of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts 
specialists, and classroom teachers reporting the extent to which they use various 

types of assessments in their arts instruction: Academic year 1999-2000 84 

53 Percentage distribution of public elementary music specialists reporting the extent 
to which they participate in various activities related to music outside of their 

regular school duties, by type of activity: Academic year 1999-2000 85 



XIII 



Table of Contents (continued) 

List of Text Tables 
Table Page 

54 Percentage distribution of public elementary visual arts specialists reporting the 
extent to which they participate in activities related to visual arts outside of school 

duties, by type of activity: Academic year 1999-2000 85 

55 Percentage distribution of public elementary classroom teachers reporting the 
extent to which they participate in activities related to the arts outside of school 

duties, by type of activity: Academic year 1999-2000 86 



List of Text Figures 



Figure 



Percent of public elementary schools offering instruction designated specifically 
for music, visual arts, dance, and drama/theatre: Academic year 1999-2000 



Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering music instruction, 
according to the portion of the school year that a typical student received 
instruction: Academic year 1999-2000 



3 Percentage distribution of public elementary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in music, according to whether the guide was aligned with the state's 

standards or the National Standards for Arts Education: Academic year 1999-2000.... 14 

4 Percentage distribution of public elementary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in music, according to whether the guide was created or updated in the last 5 

years: Academic year 1999-2000 14 

5 Percent of public elementary schools offering music instruction, according to 
whether the school receives funds from non-district sources, and the percent of the 
designated music budget that comes from these sources: Academic year 1999- 

2000 16 

6 Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering visual arts 
instruction, according to the portion of the school year that a typical student 

received instruction: Academic year 1999-2000 18 

7 Percentage distribution of public elementary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in visual arts, according to whether the guide was aligned with the state's 

standards or the National Standards for Arts Education: Academic year 1999-2000.... 23 

8 Percentage distribution of public elementary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in visual arts, according to whether the curriculum guide was created or 

updated in the last 5 years: Academic year 1999-2000 23 



xiv 



Table of Contents (continued) 

List of Text Figures 
Figure Page 

9 Percent of public elementary schools offering visual arts instruction, according to 
whether the school receives funds from non-district sources, and the percent of the 
designated visual arts budget that comes from these sources: Academic year 1999— 

2000.. 24 

10 Percent of public elementary schools indicating various methods of incorporating 
dance or creative movement into other curriculum areas: Academic year 1999— 

2000 25 

1 1 Percent of public elementary schools indicating various methods of incorporating 
drama/theatre into other curriculum areas: Academic year 1999-2000 27 

12 Percent of public secondary schools offering music, visual arts, dance, and 
drama/theatre instruction: Academic year 1999-2000 38 

1 3 Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering music instruction, 
according to the numbers of full-time and part-time teachers who taught courses in 

the subject: Academic year 1998-99 41 

14 Percentage distribution of public secondary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in music, according to whether the guide was aligned with the state's 

standards or the National Standards for Arts Education: Academic year 1999-2000.... 44 

15 Percentage distribution of public secondary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in music, according to whether the guide was created or updated in the last 5 

years: Academic year 1999-2000 44 

16 Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering music instruction and 
receiving funds from non-district sources, by the percent of the designated music 

budget that came from these sources: Academic year 1999-2000 46 

1 7 Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering visual arts instruction, 
according to the numbers of full-time and part-time teachers who taught courses in 

the subject: Academic year 1998-99 48 

1 8 Percentage distribution of public secondary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in visual arts, according to whether the guide was aligned with the state's 

standards or the National Standards for Arts Education: Academic year 1999-2000.... 5 1 

19 Percentage distribution of public secondary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in visual arts, according to whether the guide was created or updated in the 

last 5 years: Academic year 1999-2000 51 



xv 



Table of Contents (continued) 

List of Text Figures 
Figure Page 

20 Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering visual arts instruction 
and receiving funds from non-district sources, by the percent of the designated 

music budget that comes form these sources: Academic year 1999-2000 52 

2 1 Percent of public secondary schools reporting various ways that creative writing is 

taught or included in the school curriculum: Academic year 1999-2000 55 

22 Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers who participated in various professional development activities 
focusing on arts instruction in the last 12 months: Academic year 1999-2000 69 

23 Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers who participated in various professional development activities 
designed for teachers in the last 12months: Academic year 1999-2000 70 

24 Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers who participated in professional development activities 
focusing on arts instruction in the last 12 months and indicated that the activity 

improved their teaching to a moderate or great extent: Academic year 1999-2000 72 

25 Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers who participated in professional development activities 
designed for teachers in the last 12 months and indicating that the activity 

improved their teaching to a moderate or great extent: Academic year 1999-2000 73 

26 Mean number of hours teachers have designated as planning or preparation time 
when students are in attendance during a typical school week, by type of teacher: 
Academic year 1999-2000 75 



xvi 



1. INTRODUCTION 



During the last decade, arts instruction has 
received increasing attention as an important 
aspect of education. The Improving America's 
Schools Act of 1994 (U.S. Public Law 103-382), 
and the release of the voluntary National 
Standards for Arts Education (Consortium of 
National Arts Education Association 1994), 
demonstrated this increase in attention. By 1998, 
there were no national data sources that 
specifically addressed the condition of arts 
education in the nation's public schools. To fill 
this data gap, the National Endowment for the 
Arts, the Office of Educational Research and 
Improvement (OERI), and the Office of Reform 
Assistance and Dissemination (ORAD) of OERI 
requested that surveys be conducted under the Fast 
Response Survey System (FRSS) of the National 
Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the U.S. 
Department of Education. 

The purpose of this report is to provide a national 
profile of the status of arts education in the 
nation's regular public schools during the 1999- 
2000 school year. Specifically, this report presents 
information on the characteristics of public 
elementary and secondary school arts education 
programs, including data on the availability of 
instruction in the arts, staffing, funding, 
supplemental programs and activities, and 
administrative support of arts education. This 
report is based on data collected from elementary 
and secondary school principals and from 
elementary school arts specialists and classroom 
teachers during the 1999-2000 school year. 

The study was a follow up to a survey conducted 
in 1994 by NCES that was also requested by the 
National Endowment for the Arts and by the 
National Institute on Student Achievement, 
Curriculum, and Assessment of the U.S. 
Department of Education (Carey etal. 1995). That 
survey provided national data concerning public 
schools' approaches to arts education and covered 
topics such as the availability of music, visual arts, 



2 Regular school is defined as a public elementary/secondary school 
that does not focus primarily on vocational, special, or alternative 
education. 



dance, and drama/theatre instruction in the 
nation's public elementary and secondary schools; 
time devoted to instruction; space for arts 
instruction; staffing; professional development; 
and school support of arts programs. Results of 
the study were embraced by the arts education 
community as the single source of national data on 
this topic, since at that time there were no up-to- 
date, national data documenting the condition of 
arts education in the United States. 

The findings from that survey provided baseline 
information on the extent to which public schools 
were including the arts as core subjects in their 
curricula. To summarize, the 1994 arts education 
survey found that 97 percent of public elementary 
schools offered instruction in music, 85 percent 
offered instruction in visual arts, 43 percent 
offered instruction in dance, and 8 percent offered 
instruction in drama/theatre. At the secondary 
school level, the majority of schools offered 
separate instruction in music (94 percent) and 
visual arts (89 percent). About half of secondary 
schools offered separate instruction in 
drama/theatre (54 percent), and 13 percent of 
schools offered classes in dance. 

The 1 994 study also found that 70 percent of 
public elementary schools that offered music 
reported that the subject was taught only by 
certified music specialists; 22 percent indicated 
that both specialists and classroom teachers 
provided instruction; and at 8 percent of schools 
instruction was provided only by classroom 
teachers. At the secondary level, in schools that 
offered separate instruction in arts subjects, an 
average of 4.5 courses were taught in music, 5 
were taught in visual arts, and 2 courses on 
average were provided in both dance and 
drama/theatre. Most public elementary and 
secondary schools that offered separate instruction 
in arts subjects had curriculum guidelines provided 
by their school districts. About one-third of 
schools at both instructional levels had district- 
level arts coordinators or curriculum specialists on 
staff. Also, about one-third of public elementary 
and secondary schools had artists-in-residence 



during the past 5 years. (See Carey et al. 1995 for 
further findings from the 1994 study.) 

Subsequent to the 1994 FRSS arts education 
survey, publication of the NAEP (National 
Assessment of Educational Progress) 1997 Arts 
Report Card (Persky, Sandene, and Askew 1998) 
underscored the increased attention arts education 
was receiving at the national level. As stated in 
the NAEP Arts Report Card, "The last several 
years have seen a growing resolve among 
educators and policymakers to assure the place of 
a solid arts education in the nation's schools" 
(Persky, Sandene, and Askew 1998, 2). 

The 1999-2000 arts education survey provides 
some indication of the extent to which arts 
education has established its "solid place" in the 
nation's elementary and secondary public schools. 
In addition, the current study presents a more 
complete picture of arts education at the 
elementary level than the 1994 study by providing 
the first national data on the educational 
backgrounds, professional development activities, 
and teaching loads of music and visual arts 
teachers, as well as on the curricula, instructional 
practices, and work environments that 
characterized elementary school arts education in 
1999-2000. 



Arts Education: Perspectives and 
Approaches in U.S. Public Schools 

The argument for including arts education as a 
basic component in the core curriculum of public 
schools has taken one of two perspectives 
(Cortines 1999). The case for the arts is based on 
either ( 1 ) the intrinsic value of the arts, or (2) the 
value of the consequences of arts education. The 
first position asserts that arts education is 
important because of the intrinsic value of learning 
about and experiencing the arts themselves, since 
the arts reflect what it is to be human and are 
fundamental to an understanding of ourselves and 
others. The second position establishes the value 
of the consequences of arts instruction, in 
particular the contribution learning in the arts 
makes to the development of many cognitive, 
affective, and creative skills. More specifically, 
educators have made the case that students 
demonstrate higher levels of academic achieve- 



ment in non-arts areas or other success in school 
through their engagement with the arts (Catterall, 
Chapleau, andlwanaga 1999). 

A review of the literature on the value of arts 
instruction, or its impact on learning or cognitive 
development, uncovers numerous articles and 
research summaries leading to the conclusion that 
there is no one answer to the question "Why teach 
the arts?" (Eisner 1997). Just as notions about 
why it is important to teach the arts differ, so do 
conceptions about what constitutes arts education. 
For this study, the view of arts instruction 
encompasses the study of visual arts, music, 
dance, and drama/theatre. In addition, arts 
instruction includes not only teaching students 
about the tools and processes used to produce 
works of art but also educating them about how 
the arts relate to history and cultures, and 
connections among arts subjects and other 
academic disciplines. 

Another recurring, and sometimes controversial, 
question that characterizes current thinking on arts 
education is who should teach the arts? In the 
most traditional approach to arts education, visual 
arts and music are taught by specialists who have 
the knowledge, skills, and professional experience 
to teach the subjects in the most compelling and 
authentic fashion. With the push toward a more 
integrated, cross-discipline curriculum, some 
schools provide arts instruction as a collaboration 
between classroom teachers and arts specialists. 
In this approach, classroom teachers need to have 
some background or training in arts instruction, 
and the role of the arts specialists includes 
providing resources for teachers in curriculum and 
staff development (Wilson 1997). At the other 
extreme are schools where there are no arts 
specialists on staff, either to teach students directly 
or to act as resources to classroom teachers who 
provide the arts instruction that is offered. 

Given the various configurations that schools can 
adopt in providing instruction in the arts, the 
survey instruments used in this study were 
designed to be inclusive of several approaches. In 
this way, the maximum amount of information 
could be collected, without any philosophical bias 
as to the optimum strategy for teaching students 
about the arts. 



Study Methodology 

The surveys of public elementary and secondary 
school arts education were conducted during fall 
1999 (see appendix C for survey questionnaires). 
Respondents to the survey were sampled 
elementary and secondary school principals. At 
the same time, the elementary school principals 
were asked to provide lists of their music and 
visual arts specialists and regular (self-contained) 
classroom teachers for the sampling for a teacher 
survey. From each list of teachers submitted, one 
classroom teacher and one of each type of arts 
specialist were sampled, depending on whether the 
school had music and visual arts specialists on 
staff. The teacher surveys were conducted during 
spring 2000. 

The 1994 surveys of arts education in public 
elementary and secondary schools provided 
baseline information on the extent to which public 
schools were including the arts as core subjects in 
their curricula. However, national data addressing 
the ways that arts instruction is delivered, and the 
qualifications of the teachers who provide the 
instruction, were still lacking. The positive 
response from the arts education community to the 
school-level data contained in the 1994 report 
increased the conviction on the part of the data 
requesters that teacher-level data were essential in 
order to present a more complete picture of the 
ways that students experience the arts in public 
schools. Therefore, NCES, ORAD, and the 
National Endowment for the Arts supported a 
teacher component in the 1999-2000 data 
collection to begin to fill this gap. 

Providing the most complete picture would require 
surveying teachers at both the elementary and 
secondary school levels, but surveys of that 
magnitude were beyond the scope of the Fast 
Response Survey System. It was necessary to 
limit the teacher survey to either elementary or 
secondary school teachers. Data collection at the 
secondary level would be constrained by the fact 
that arts instruction is provided primarily through 
elective courses and is often taught by multiple 
specialists in each of the four arts subjects (Carey 
et al. 1995). In contrast, at the elementary level, 
arts instruction is usually limited to music and 
visual arts and is part of a standard curriculum in 
which all students participate. Therefore, given 
the resources available through the Fast Response 



Survey System, it was decided to focus on arts 
instruction in public elementary schools. Further, 
for the elementary teacher-level surveys, only 
music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers were sampled. The number of 
schools employing dance and drama/theatre 
teachers is small, and so it was not possible to 
select adequate samples based on the list 
collection from the schools (see appendix A for 
details on the list collection). 

The school-level results presented in this report 
were based on questionnaire data from 640 regular 
public elementary school principals and 686 
regular public secondary school principals (or their 
designated respondents) (see appendix A, tables 
A-l and A-2). The elementary school teacher 
findings are based on data collected from 453 
music specialists, 331 visual arts specialists, and 
497 regular classroom teachers (see appendix A, 
tables A-3 through A-5). 

Many of the questionnaire items on the school 
surveys were similar, but not identical, to the 1 994 
FRSS surveys. Some items were revised or 
replaced because the results from the 1 994 surveys 
indicated that the items may have been 
misinterpreted by respondents or had not produced 
useful information (see appendix C for 
questionnaires). In addition, the arts community 
(who participated in the development of the 
questionnaires) was interested in obtaining 
additional detail on various questions, such as who 
taught the arts and what types of space were 
available for instruction. Finally, an effort was 
made to revise items to be consistent with the 
1997 National Assessment of Educational 
Progress. Given the differences in questions in 
both form and content, it was decided not to 
compare across survey years in this report. See 
appendix A for a list of questions that were indeed 
comparable across survey years, with 
corresponding findings. 

The teacher surveys contained questions about 
teachers' educational backgrounds and 
professional development, their teaching loads, 
and the extent to which they collaborate with other 
teachers or participate in various school 



Only regular public schools in the 50 states and the District of 
Columbia were included in the sample (see appendix A for 
additional details). 



committees. Some of these questionnaire items 
were adapted from the 1998 NCES survey on 
teacher quality (Lewis et al. 1999). The surveys 
designed for music and visual arts specialists each 
contained two unique sets of questions that 
address the ways that schools support arts 
programs, such as the facilities and resources 
available to teachers, and the goals and objectives 
of student learning in either music or visual arts. 

The school characteristics used as analysis 
variables for reporting data from the school 
surveys were school enrollment size, locale 
(central city, urban fringe, town, rural), 
region, percent minority enrollment, and percent 
of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
school lunch (which indicates the concentration of 
poverty in the school). These variables are 
defined in appendix A. Some of the school 
characteristics used for independent analyses may 
be related to each other. For example, poverty 
concentration and minority enrollment are related, 
as schools with a high minority enrollment also 
tend to have a high concentration of poverty. 
Because of the relatively small samples used in 
this study, it is difficult to separate the 
independent effects of these variables. The 
existence of such effects, however, should be 
considered in the interpretation of the data 
presented in this report. 

The data from the teacher surveys are generally 
presented for the overall samples of teachers, and 
are not broken down by specific school or teacher 
characteristics. The survey samples of arts 
specialists and classroom teachers were relatively 
small (453 music specialists, 331 visual arts 
specialists, and 497 regular classroom teachers). 
Thus, small cell sizes and resulting high standard 
errors might not in many cases support 
comparisons across subgroups of selected 
independent variables. 



The responses to the school questionnaires were 
weighted to produce national estimates that 
represent all regular public elementary and 
secondary schools in the United States; those for 
the teacher surveys were weighted to produce 
national estimates that represent all regular 
elementary school classroom teachers, music 
specialists, and visual arts specialists. All 
comparative statements in this report have been 
tested for statistical significance using /-tests 
adjusted for multiple comparisons using the 
Bonferroni adjustment and are significant at the 
0.05 level; however, not all significant 
comparisons are cited in the report. Appendix A 
provides a more detailed discussion of the survey 
samples and methodology. 



Organization of This Report 

The chapters that follow present survey results 
describing the status of arts education in 
America's public schools during the 1999-2000 
school year. Specifically, chapter 2 presents 
information on the characteristics of public 
elementary school arts education programs. 
Chapter 3 presents similar findings for public 
secondary school arts education programs. 
Chapter 4 reports on the results of the teacher 
surveys, comparing findings from arts specialists 
and classroom teachers. The final chapter 
summarizes the findings of this study and draws 
some overall conclusions. A description of the 
study methodology (appendix A) and tables of 
standard errors for all data presented in this report 
(appendix B) are included as technical appendices. 
The questionnaires for this study and the arts 
survey conducted in 1994 are included in appendix 
C. 



2. ARTS EDUCATION IN 
PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



Highlights 



• In 1999-2000, music instruction and visual arts instruction were available in most of the nation's 
public elementary schools (94 and 87 percent, respectively). Dance and drama/theatre were 
available in less than one-third of elementary schools (20 and 19 percent, respectively). 

• Overall, 72 percent of elementary schools that offered music instruction and 55 percent of 
elementary schools that offered visual arts instruction employed full-time specialists to teach these 
subjects. Full-time specialists in dance were employed by 24 percent of elementary schools that 
offered this subject, and full-time specialists in drama/theatre were employed by 16 percent of 
elementary schools that offered it. 

• Sixty-seven percent of elementary schools that offered music had dedicated rooms with special 
equipment for instruction in this subject. Of the schools that offered visual arts, 56 percent had 
dedicated rooms with special equipment for visual arts. Fourteen percent of elementary schools that 
offered dance had dedicated rooms with special equipment for dance instruction, and 13 percent of 
schools with drama/theatre had dedicated rooms with special equipment for this subject. 

• Seventy-seven percent of regular public elementary schools sponsored field trips to arts 
performances during the 1998-99 school year, and 65 percent sponsored field trips to art galleries or 
museums. Thirty-eight percent sponsored visiting artists, 22 percent sponsored artists-in-residence, 
and 5 1 percent of public elementary schools sponsored after-school activities in the arts during the 
1998-99 school year. 



Availability and Characteristics of 
Arts Education Programs in Public 
Elementary Schools 

The elementary school survey addressed a variety 
of topics regarding characteristics of arts education 
programs in public elementary schools during the 
1999-2000 school year. One purpose of the 
elementary school survey was to determine the 
extent to which students received instruction 
dedicated specifically to the arts during the regular 
school day. In order to capture how elementary 
schools provided this instruction, principals were 
asked a series of questions concerning music, 
visual arts, dance, and drama/theatre. The first 
question addressed whether, and how often, a 
typical student received instruction in each arts 
subject during the regular school day. To 
determine the amount of instruction received in 
each subject, principals were asked (1) the 
approximate number of minutes students spent in a 
typical class or period of instruction, and 



(2) whether instruction was provided throughout 
the school year, for some portion of the year, or in 
some other timeframe. 

Principals were asked to indicate the position of 
the person(s) who teach(es) each subject, 
including certified (credentialed) specialists, 
classroom teachers, artists-in-residence, other 
faculty, and volunteers. In addition, they were 
asked to indicate the kind of space used for 
teaching each subject, ranging from a dedicated 
room with special equipment to teachers' regular 
classrooms. Principals were also asked whether 
their districts had a written curriculum guide in the 
subject and whether the guide was aligned with 
their states' standards or the National Standards 
for Arts Education. 4 Finally, in order to gather 



4 The National Standards for Arts Education, published in 1994 by the 
Consortium of National Arts Education Associations, identify what 
students should know and be able to do in kindergarten through 
grade 12 in dance, music, theatre, and visual arts. Many states have 
also adopted their own arts standards that are often modeled after 
the National Standards. 



some basic information about support for each 
subject, principals were asked whether their 
schools typically received monies from any 
outside sources (that is, non-district funding) to 
supplement the arts education program budget, 
and to indicate the percentage of the budget 
designated for each subject that came from these 
funds. 

The elementary school survey also contained a 
series of questions that allowed principals to 
describe in more general terms their educational 
programs in dance and drama/theatre, since most 
elementary schools do not typically offer separate 
programs of instruction in these subjects (Carey et 
al. 1995). Thus, these questions were included to 



determine whether students experienced these arts 
subjects within the context of instruction in other 
subject areas, such as physical education (for 
dance) or language arts (for drama/theatre). 



Availability of Arts Education Programs 

Music was almost universally available in the 
nation's regular public elementary schools in 
1999-2000, with 94 percent of all schools 
reporting that they offered music 5 as specific 
instruction during the regular school day in 1999- 
2000 (figure 1 and table 1). Visual arts instruction 
was also available in most of the nation's regular 
public elementary schools (87 percent). 



Figure 1. — Percent of public elementary schools offering instruction designated specifically for 
music, visual arts, dance, and drama/theatre: Academic year 1999-2000 



Percent 



100 -, 




87 



20 



19 





Music 



Visual arts 



Dance 



Drama/theatre 



SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



5 Music instruction could include general music, as well as more 
specialized types of music instruction, such as chorus, band, and 
strings/orchestra. 



Compared with music and visual arts, dance and 
drama/theatre were less commonly taught in 
elementary schools (20 percent for dance, and 
19 percent for drama/theatre). 

These findings present a picture of the availability 
of arts instruction in the nation's regular public 



elementary schools. The following sections 
provide details on a variety of characteristics of 
instructional programs in music, visual arts, dance, 
and drama/theatre, including the quantity of 
instruction, teacher status, types of space used, the 
presence of written curriculum guides, and outside 
sources of funding. 



Table 1. — Percent of public elementary schools offering instruction in various arts subjects, 
by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Music 



Visual arts 



Dance 



Drama/theatre 



All public elementary schools 94 87 20 19 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 95 88 21 18 

300 to 599 94 86 17 15 

600 or more 94 86 25 29 

Locale 

City 96 85 23 22 

Urban fringe 94 89 19 19 

Town 97 83 15 15 

Rural 92 86 20 19 

Region 

Northeast 94 95 16 11 

Southeast 95 81 19 19 

Central 96 91 14 11 

West 93 81 29 32 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 95 92 17 15 

6 to 20 percent 97 89 18 18 

21 to 50 percent 94 86 17 18 

More than 50 percent 91 81 27 27 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 percent 97 94 20 20 

35 to 49 percent 98 74 17 16 

50 to 74 percent 94 89 25 21 

75 percent or more 88 79 20 20 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



Characteristics of Music Instruction 

Time devoted to instruction. Among the 
94 percent of regular public elementary schools 
that offered music instruction, students in 
6 percent of schools had music classes every day 
in 1999-2000 (table 2). Students had music three 



or four times a week in 14 percent of schools, and 
in 73 percent of schools students attended music 
classes once or twice a week. Students in 
7 percent of schools had music classes less than 
once a week. Class periods for music instruction 
lasted on average 38 minutes. 



Table 2. — Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering music instruction 

indicating how frequently a typical student received instruction designated specifically 
for music, and average number of minutes per class period, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Frequency of instruction 



Every day 



3 to 4 
times a week 



1 to 2 
times a week 



Less than once 
a week 



Average number 

of minutes per 

class period 



All public elementary schools 6 14 73 7 38 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 10 15 68 7 35 

300 to 599 5 14 76 5 37 

600ormore 4 10 75 12 41 

Locale 

City 3 12 77 8 39 

Urban fringe 5 12 76 7 37 

Town 13 17 61 9 37 

Rural 8 16 72 5 37 

Region 

Northeast 3 10 82 5 39 

Southeast 4 12 75 .9 40 

Central 6 16 76 2 35 

West 9 15 64 12 37 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 6 14 74 5 37 

6 to 20 percent 5 16 73 6 37 

21 to 50 percent 9 12 72 8 38 

More than 50 percent 4 12 74 10 39 

Percent of students eligible for free or 
reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 3 17 73 6 38 

35 to 49 percent 9 12 75 5 35 

50 to 74 percent 7 16 69 8 37 

75 percent or more 8 8 73 11 39 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 94 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in music during the regular school day in 
fall 1999. Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



8 



Most elementary schools offering music 
(93 percent) reported that students participated in 
music instruction throughout the entire school year 
(figure 2). To calculate the total amount of music 
instruction that typical elementary school students 
received in a school year, a "dosage" variable was 
created. 6 On average, in schools where music was 
offered, elementary school students received 
46 hours of music instruction during the course of 



a school year (table 3). Fourteen percent of the 
elementary schools that offered music provided 
students with 25 hours or less of music instruction 
during the school year, and 43 percent provided 
students with 26 to 40 hours. Twenty-one percent 
provided between 41 and 50 hours, and 22 percent 
provided students with more than 50 hours of 
music instruction over the course of a school year. 



Figure 2. — Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering music instruction, 

according to the portion of the school year that a typical student received instruction: 
Academic year 1999-2000 

2% 1% , , 

40/- 1% —| ■ Entire school year 

1 i 

□ Half the year 

H One-quarter of the year 

^Less than one-quarter of the year 

M Other 




NOTE: Percentages are based on the 94 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in music during the regular school day in 
fall 1999. Percentages do not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



6 Dosage of instruction is the number of days per week music was 
offered, multiplied by the approximate number of weeks it was 
offered during the school year, multiplied by the number of minutes 
a typical class period lasted. Number of weeks of instruction was 
based on the assumption that a typical school year encompasses 40 
weeks. For the purposes of this analysis, minutes were converted 
into hours. 



Table 3. — Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering music instruction, 
according to the total number of hours that a typical student received instruction 
during the school year, and average hours per school year, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Percent of schools with 



25 hours 
or less per year 



26 to 40 
hours per year 



41 to 50 
hours per year 



More than 50 
hours per year 



Average hours 
per year 



All public elementary schools 14 43 21 22 46 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 15 39 18 27 45 

300 to 599 11 49 19 21 46 

600 or more 19 34 29 18 45 

Locale 

City 19 39 25 17 44 

Urban fringe 12 50 19 19 43 

Town 15 35 18 33 50 

Rural 11 41 22 27 48 

Region 

Northeast 8 56 23 13 43 

Southeast 13 45 22 20 47 

Central 13 46 17 25 45 

West 20 30 24 26 47 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 13 45 19 . 23 45 

6 to 20 percent 9 49 19 24 46 

21 to 50 percent 13 46 19 21 46 

More than 50 percent 20 33 29 18 46 

Percent of students eligible for free or 
reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 13 43 20 25 45 

35 to 49 percent 10 51 17 22 46 

50 to 74 percent 16 42 20 22 46 

75 percent or more 18 35 29 17 46 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 94 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in music during the regular school day in 
fall 1999. Total hours were based on the multiplication of the number of days per week music was offered, by the approximate number of weeks 
it was offered during the school year, by the number of minutes a typical class period lasted. Number of weeks of instruction was based on the 
assumption that a typical school year encompasses 40 weeks. Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 






Music teachers. According to most leaders in the 
arts education community, the best qualified 
people to teach the arts are specialists who possess 
expertise that can enhance student knowledge, 
understanding, and skills in art appreciation and 
art making (Wilson 1997). Principals were asked 
whether those responsible for music instruction at 
their schools fell into any of the following 
categories: full-time certified specialists, part-time 
certified specialists, regular classroom teachers, 
artists-in-residence, other faculty members, or 
volunteers. Overall, public elementary schools 
that offered music were most likely to employ 
full-time certified specialists to teach the 



subject (72 percent) (table 4). 7 Part-time 

specialists taught music at 20 percent of schools. 
Smaller percentages relied on either classroom 
teachers (11 percent), artists-in-residence 
(3 percent), or other faculty or volunteers 
(4 percent) to teach music. 

Schools varied with respect to the individuals 
responsible for music instruction. Large and 
moderate-size schools were more likely than small 
schools to employ full-time music specialists (80 



7 Percentages in table 4 sum to more than 100 because respondents 
could select more than one category. The same holds true for 
similar findings pertaining to staffing that follow in this chapter 
(including tables 10 and 13). 



10 



and 76 percent versus 57 percent). Schools in the 
West were less likely to employ full-time music 
specialists compared with schools in the Northeast 
and Central regions of the country (56 percent 
versus 80 and 85 percent). Conversely, schools in 
the West were more likely than schools in other 
regions to employ classroom teachers to teach 
music (26 percent versus 2 to 7 percent), and were 
more likely than schools in the Northeast region to 
employ other faculty or volunteers (8 percent 



versus 1 percent). Schools with 6 to 20 percent 
minority enrollment were more likely than those 
with more than 50 percent minority enrollment to 
have full-time specialists in music (80 percent 
versus 63 percent). Yet schools with the lowest 
minority enrollment (5 percent or less) were no 
more likely than other schools to have full-time 
music specialists on staff (71 percent versus 63 to 
80 percent). 



Table 4. — Percent of public elementary schools offering music instruction, according to the position 
of the person(s) who provided the instruction, by school characteristics: Academic year 
1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Full-time 

certified music 

specialist 



Part-time 

certified music 

specialist 



Classroom 
teacher 



Artist-in- 
residence 



Other faculty 
or volunteers* 



All public elementary schools 72 20 11 3 4 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 57 28 13 1 6 

300 to 599 76 19 8 3 3 

600 or more 80 13 13 4 6 

Locale 

City 68 23 10 4 5 

Urban fringe 78 16 12 3 4 

Town 75 15 9 1 5 

Rural 65 24 10 2 5 

Region 

Northeast 80 25 3 2 1 

Southeast 70 21 7 3 5 

Central 85 16 2 1 3 

West 56 20 26 5 8 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 71 21 8 3 4 

6to20percent 80 19 11 4 2 

21 to 50 percent 74 19 11 2 1 

More than 50 percent 63 22 13 3 8 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 percent 76 21 9 5 3 

35 to 49 percent 76 15 11 3 6 

50 to 74 percent 63 19 15 1 6 

75 percent or more 66 23 11 2 5 

*This category combines responses to separate survey questions about whether music was taught by other faculty members and volunteers. 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 94 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in music during the regular school day in 
fall 1999. Percentages sum to more than 100 because respondents could select more than one category. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



11 



Space for music instruction. Access to 
appropriate instruments and equipment is 
important to the delivery of many aspects of a 
broad music curriculum. A dedicated space that is 
consistently open for instruction and in which 
materials are readily available facilitates a school's 
music program. Overall, 67 percent of public 
elementary schools that offered music reported 
having a dedicated room with special equipment 
for teaching the subject (table 5). Seven percent 
reported a dedicated room with no special 
equipment; 10 percent conducted music 
instruction in a gymnasium, auditorium, or 
cafeteria; and 1 5 percent did so in regular 
classrooms only. 



Whether a school had a dedicated room with 
special equipment for music instruction varied by 
school characteristics. Specifically, schools with 
more than 50 percent minority enrollment were 
less likely than schools with 5 percent or less and 
21 to 50 percent minority enrollments to have 
a dedicated room with special equipment 
(53 percent versus 71 and 72 percent). Schools 
with the highest concentration of poverty 
(75 percent or more) were less likely than those 
with less than 35 percent and 50 to 74 percent 
poverty concentrations to have a dedicated room 
with special equipment for music instruction 
(5 1 percent versus 70 percent). 



Table 5. — Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering music instruction, 
according to the space used for teaching the subject, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Dedicated 

room(s), with 

special equipment 



Dedicated 

room(s), no 

special equipment 



Gymnasium, 

auditorium, or 

cafeteria 



Regular 
classrooms only 



All public elementary schools 67 7 10 15 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 53 9 13 22 

300 to 599 71 7 9 11 

600 or more 71 5 8 16 

Locale 

City 64 10 10 15 

Urban fringe 68 3 10 16 

Town 66 5 9 20 

Rural 67 10 9 12 

Region 

Northeast 62 8 10 17 

Southeast 68 10 8 12 

Central 74 7 6 13 

West 63 5 14 19 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 71 6 6 16 

6 to 20 percent 70 6 8 16 

21 to 50 percent 72 4 14 9 

More than 50 percent 53 12 12 21 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 percent 70 6 7 15 

35 to 49 percent 69 7 12 11 

50 to 74 percent 70 3 9 16 

75 percent or more 51 15 14 19 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 94 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in music during the regular school day in 
fall 1999. Row percentages may not sum to 100 because the "other" category was not included in this table due to the small number of cases 
reported or due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



12 



Written curriculum guide for music. Of the 

elementary schools that offered instruction in 
music, 81 percent reported that their district had a 
written curriculum guide in music that the teachers 
were expected to follow (table 6). Schools in the 
West were less likely than those in the Northeast 
and Central regions to have a written curriculum 
guide for music (70 percent versus 90 and 
88 percent). Schools with 50 percent or less 



minority enrollment were more likely to have a 
written curriculum guide for music than schools 
with more than 50 percent minority enrollment (84 
to 87 percent versus 71 percent). Also, schools 
with the lowest concentration of poverty were 
more likely than those with the two highest 
concentrations of poverty to report written 
curriculum guides for music (88 percent versus 75 
and 73 percent). 



Table 6. — Percent of public elementary schools offering music instruction, according to the 
availability of a district curriculum guide in music, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



District curriculum guide in music 



All public elementary schools 81 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 77 

300 to 599 85 

600 or more 78 

Locale 

City 84 

Urban fringe 86 

Town 80 

Rural 72 

Region 

Northeast 90 

Southeast 80 

Central 88 

West 70 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 87 

6 to 20 percent 86 

21 to 50 percent 84 

More than 50 percent 71 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 88 

35 to 49 percent 81 

50 to 74 percent 75 

75 percent or more 73 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 94 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in music during the regular school day in 
fall 1999. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



13 



Of the schools with curriculum guides in music, 
78 percent indicated that the curriculum guide was 
aligned with their states' standards or the National 
Standards for Arts Education (figure 3), although 
1 8 percent of principals indicated that they did not 



know if it was or not. About three-quarters 
(78 percent) indicated that the music curriculum 
guide had been created or updated in the last 5 
years, and 12 percent of principals did not know 
when the guide had been created (figure 4). 



Figure 3. — Percentage distribution of public 
elementary schools with a written 
curriculum guide in music, 
according to whether the guide was 
aligned with the state's standards or 
the National Standards for Arts 
Education: Academic year 1999- 
2000 



18% 



4% 




■ Yes 

a No 

Don't know 



NOTE: Percentages are based on the 76 percent of public elementary 
schools that reported instruction in music and had a district written 
curriculum guide in music; that is, 94 percent that offered instruction 
in music multiplied by 81 percent that had a written curriculum guide. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for 
Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary 
School Arts Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



Figure 4. — Percentage distribution of 
public elementary schools 
with a written curriculum 
guide in music, according 
to whether the guide was 
created or updated in the last 
5 years: Academic year 
1999-2000 



12% 



10%) 




■ Yes 

□ No 

□ Don't know 



78% 



NOTE: Percentages are based on the 76 percent of public elementary 
schools that reported instruction in music and had a district written 
curriculum guide in music; that is, 94 percent that offered instruction 
in music multiplied by 81 percent that had a written curriculum guide. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for 
Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary 
School Arts Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



14 



Types of music instruction offered. Music 
instruction can take a variety of forms in 
elementary schools. While schools typically offer 
students classes in general music during the 
regular school day, many schools also offer 
separate instruction dedicated to chorus, band, or 
strings/orchestra. In general, these kinds of 
specialized learning experiences are offered as 
electives to students who express interest in 
learning how to sing in a group or how to play an 
instrument. In order to capture rates of student 
enrollment over the span of an entire school year, 
principals were asked to describe these types of 
music offerings during the 1998-99 school year. 
This question was asked of all principals, rather 
than only those indicating that a typical student 
received music instruction during the regular 
school day at their school, so that any special 
performance-based instruction offered to students 
choosing to enroll would be captured. 

Most regular public elementary schools 
(92 percent) offered instruction in general music 



during the 1998-99 school year. Also, most 
schools reported that general music was first 
offered to students in grade 2 or earlier 
(9 1 percent), and 94 percent of schools indicated 
that more than 75 percent of the student body 
participated in the instruction (table 7). 
Considerably fewer elementary schools offered 
instruction in chorus (52 percent), and if they did, 
schools were most likely to introduce students to 

Q 

chorus in grades 3 or 4 (52 percent). 
Forty percent of schools offering chorus reported 
that 25 percent or less of the student body actually 
enrolled in chorus, and 24 percent reported more 
than 75 percent participation. 

Band instruction was offered in 48 percent of 
public elementary schools and was most typically 
introduced to students in grade 5 or above 
(61 percent). About half of the schools that 
offered band (52 percent) reported that 25 percent 
or less of the student body participated in the 
activity. Fewer elementary schools offered 



Table 7. — Percent of public elementary schools reporting various kinds of music instruction, by 
the earliest grade at which the instruction was offered and the percent of students 
enrolled: Academic year 1998-99 



Characteristic of music program 



General music 



Chorus 



Band 



Strings/orchestra 



All public elementary schools 92 52 48 27 

Earliest grade offered* 

Second and under 91 19 3 6 

Third through fourth 5 52 36 65 

Fifth and higher 4 29 61 30 

Percent of eligible students enrolled* 

25 percent or less 1 40 52 73 

26 to 50 percent 3 25 30 17 

5 1 to 75 percent 2 11 14 5 

More than 75 percent 94 24 4 6 

♦Percentages are based on the percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in each music area in fall 1999. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



One might consider whether findings in table 7 involving earliest 
grade offered (of general music, chorus, band, and strings/orchestra) 
might be misleading if the schools at which these subjects were 
offered only begin with grades 3 and above. For example, table 7 
shows that at 52 percent of elementary schools, chorus was not 
offered until third or fourth grades. This might be because chorus 
was a subject reserved for older children, or else because at these 
schools there were no grades K to 2. Analysis reveals that the 
former is generally the case, although for a small percentage of 
schools, the latter holds true. For instance, of the elementary 
schools that first offer chorus to fourth graders, 31 percent begin 
with prekindergarten, and 59 percent begin with kindergarten. Only 
7 percent of these schools begin with fourth grade. 



15 



programs in strings or orchestra (27 percent) than 
chorus and band. Schools typically introduced 
students to strings/orchestra in grades 3 or 4 
(65 percent), and 73 percent of these schools 
reported that 25 percent or less of the student body 
was enrolled in the program. These differences in 
enrollment may be attributed to the fact that 
chorus, band, and strings are generally offered as 
elective classes for interested students, while 
general music is typically part of the regular 
school curriculum where attendance is required. 

Outside funding of music programs. Principals 
were asked whether their schools received funding 
from outside sources (that is, non-district funding), 
including (but not limited to) parent groups or 



local businesses, to fund their education programs 
in music. If funds were received from non-district 
sources, principals were asked to indicate the 
approximate percentage of the music budget that 
came from these sources. Relatively few public 
elementary schools (20 percent) received non- 
district funding for their music programs 
(figure 5). Of the 20 percent of schools that 
received non-district funds, 65 percent said these 
funds contributed 1 percent or less to their total 
music budget, and 26 percent said these funds 
contributed between 1 1 and 50 percent to their 
budget. Nine percent reported that more than 50 
of their music budget came from non-district 
sources. 



Figure 5. — Percent of public elementary schools offering music instruction, according to whether 
the school receives funds from non-district sources, and the percent of the designated 
music budget that comes from these sources: Academic year 1999-2000 



Percent 



100 -i 



80- 



60- 



40 



20- 







No non-district 
funding (80%) 



Any non-district 
funding (20%) 




1 percent or less 

11 to 50 percent 
More than 50 percent 



65% 

26% 
9% 



NOTE: Percentages are based on the 94 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in music during the regular school day in 
fall 1999. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



16 






Characteristics of Visual Arts Instruction 

Time devoted to instruction. As noted earlier, 
visual arts instruction was offered in 87 percent of 
public elementary schools. Of these schools, 
3 percent provided visual arts classes to students 
every day in 1999-2000 (table 8). In 9 percent of 



these schools, students had visual arts three or four 
times a week, and in 73 percent of schools 
students had visual arts once or twice a week. 
Students in 1 5 percent of schools had visual arts 
classes less than once a week. Class periods for 
instruction lasted an average of 43 minutes. 



Table 8. — Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering visual arts instruction 

indicating how frequently a typical student received instruction designated specifically 
for visual arts, and average number of minutes per class period, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Frequency of instruction 



Every day 



3 to 4 
times a week 



1 to 2 
times a week 



Less than once 
a week 



Average number 

of minutes per 

class period 



All public elementary schools 3 9 73 15 43 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 3 11 71 15 43 

300 to 599 2 8 75 15 43 

600ormore 4 9 71 16 43 

Locale 

City 1 9 71 18 43 

Urban fringe 3 7 75 15 43 

Town 2 9 69 20 41 

Rural 5 13 74 8 44 

Region 

Northeast 2 3 88 7 43 

Southeast 3 13 65 19 42 

Central 2 7 79 12 45 

West 5 13 62 21 41 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 3 11 79 7 44 

6 to 20 percent 9 77 14 44 

21 to 50 percent 3 7 65 26 42 

More than 50 percent 5 9 69 16 42 

Percent of students eligible for free or 
reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 1 9 79 11 45 

35 to 49 percent 1 7 71 20 42 

50 to 74 percent 4 9 69 17 41 

75 percent or more 6 13 62 19 42 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 87 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in visual arts during the regular school day 
in fall 1999. Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



17 



Most of the public elementary schools that offered 
visual arts instruction reported that students 
participated in this subject throughout the entire 
school year (88 percent) (figure 6). On average, in 
schools where visual arts was offered, elementary 
school students received 44 hours of visual arts 
instruction during the course of a school year 
(table 9). Nineteen percent of the elementary 



schools that offered visual arts provided students 
with 25 hours or less of visual arts instruction 
during the school year, and 29 percent provided 
students with 26 to 40 hours. Thirty percent 
provided between 41 and 50 hours, and 22 percent 
provided students with more than 50 hours of 
visual arts instruction over the course of the school 
year. 



Figure 6. — Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering visual arts instruction, 
according to the portion of the school year that a typical student received instruction: 
Academic year 1999-2000 

■ Entire school year 
□ Half the year 
One-quarter of the year 
Less than one-quarter of the year 
Other 




NOTE: Percentages are based on the 87 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in visual arts during the regular school day 
in fall 1 999. Percentages do not sum to 1 00 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



18 






Table 9. — Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering visual arts instruction, 
according to the total number of hours that a typical student received instruction 
during the school year, and average hours per school year, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Percent of schools with 



25 hours 
or less per year 



26 to 40 
hours per year 



41 to 50 
hours per year 



More than 
50 hours 
per year 



Average hours 
per year 



All public elementary schools 19 29 30 22 44 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 17 23 35 25 45 

300 to 599 18 35 27 21 44 

600 or more 24 26 30 20 44 

Locale 

City 22 28 29 21 43 

Urban fringe 18 34 30 18 43 

Town 26 26 32 16 40 

Rural 12 26 32 31 49 

Region 

Northeast 10 42 36 12 43 

Southeast 22 38 19 21 42 

Central 15 24 36 25 46 

West 27 20 28 25 44 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 13 28 34 25 47 

6 to 20 percent 16 33 32 19 43 

21 to 50 percent 28 27 26 19 39 

More than 50 percent 21 31 27 21 45 

Percent of students eligible for free or 
reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 14 27 35 23 46 

35 to 49 percent 24 34 29 14 37 

50 to 74 percent 21 34 27 18 42 

75 percent or more 23 27 23 27 47 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 87 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in visual arts during the regular school day 
in fall 1999. Total hours were based on multiplying the number of days per week visual arts was offered, by the approximate number of weeks it 

was offered during the school year, by the number of minutes a typical class period lasted. Number of weeks of instruction was based on the 

assumption that a typical school year encompasses 40 weeks. Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



19 



Visual arts teachers. At regular public 
elementary schools where visual arts was offered, 
about half (55 percent) employed full-time 
certified specialists to teach the subject (table 10). 
Part-time specialists taught visual arts at 
18 percent of schools. About one-quarter of 
schools (26 percent) relied on classroom teachers 
to teach visual arts, 6 percent relied on artists-in- 
residence, and 6 percent used other faculty or 
volunteers to teach visual arts. 

Whether schools employed full-time visual arts 
specialists varied according to school size, region, 
and poverty concentration. Large schools were 



more likely than moderate-size or small schools to 
employ full-time visual arts specialists (69 percent 
versus 53 and 45 percent). Schools in the West 
were least likely to employ full-time specialists 
compared with schools in other regions of the 
nation (25 percent versus 55 to 76 percent). Fifty- 
seven percent of schools in the West relied on 
classroom teachers for visual arts instruction. 
Schools with the lowest concentration of poverty 
were more likely to have full-time specialists in 
visual arts than were schools with 50 to 74 percent 
poverty concentration (63 percent versus 
41 percent). 



Table 10. — Percent of public elementary schools offering visual arts instruction, according to the 
position of the person(s) who provided the instruction, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Full-time 
certified visual 
arts specialist 



Part-time 

certified visual 

arts specialist 



Classroom 
teacher 



Artist-in- 
residence 



Other faculty or 
volunteers* 



All public elementary schools 55 18 26 6 6 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 45 22 31 , 4 5 

300 to 599 53 21 24 6 7 

600ormore 69 5 26 8 5 

Locale 

City 61 16 22 6 5 

Urban fringe 60 18 21 7 9 

Town 43 18 40 6 6 

Rural 47 19 32 2 2 

Region 

Northeast 76 21 7 2 

Southeast 55 25 19 5 5 

Central 70 18 14 2 2 

West 25 11 57 12 14 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 53 24 23 3 5 

6 to 20 percent 64 16 20 6 9 

21 to 50 percent 47 17 31 10 3 

More than 50 percent 55 13 32 5 5 

Percent of students eligible for free or 
reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 63 18 18 6 8 

35 to 49 percent 53 11 27 8 4 

50 to 74 percent 41 21 36 3 6 

75 percent or more 52 15 35 7 4 

This category combines responses to two separate survey questions about whether visual arts was taught by "other faculty members" and by 
"volunteers." 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 87 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in visual arts during the regular school day 
in fall 1999. Percentages sum to more than 100 because respondents could select more than one category. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



20 



Space for visual arts instruction. Overall, 
56 percent of the regular public elementary 
schools that offered visual arts had a dedicated 
room with special equipment for teaching visual 
arts; 8 percent had a dedicated room with no 
special equipment; 3 percent used a gymnasium, 
auditorium, or cafeteria; and 33 percent taught 
visual arts in regular classrooms only (table 1 1). 

The availability of dedicated rooms for visual arts 
instruction in elementary schools varied by school 
characteristics. Specifically, large and moderate- 
size schools were more likely than small schools 



to have a dedicated room with special equipment 
for teaching visual arts (67 and 59 percent versus 

41 percent). Urban fringe schools (65 percent) 
were more likely than schools in towns 
(41 percent) and rural schools (48 percent) to have 
a dedicated room with special equipment for 
visual arts instruction. Also, schools with the 
lowest concentration of poverty were more likely 
to have a dedicated room with special equipment 
than schools with 50 percent or more poverty 
concentrations (65 percent versus 48 and 

42 percent). 



Table 11. — Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering visual arts instruction, 
according to the space used for teaching the subject, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Dedicated 

room(s), with 

special equipment 



Dedicated 

room(s), no 

special equipment 



Gymnasium, 

auditorium, or 

cafeteria 



Regular 
classrooms only 



All public elementary schools 56 8 3 33 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 41 8 5 45 

300 to 599 59 9 2 28 

600 or more 67 4 1 28 

Locale 

City 56 10 2 31 

Urban fringe 65 5 1 27 

Town 41 8 5 44 

Rural 48 8 6 37 

Region 

Northeast 71 9 1 16 

Southeast 59 8 4 25 

Central 62 8 3 25 

West 35 5 3 56 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 58 7 2 30 

6 to 20 percent 59 7 6 26 

21 to 50 percent 57 5 1 37 

More than 50 percent 48 10 2 39 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 percent 65 6 3 25 

35 to 49 percent 51 11 9 27 

50 to 74 percent 48 3 1 47 

75 percent or more 42 14 3 40 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 87 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in visual arts during the regular school day 
in fall 1999. Row percentages may not sum to 100 because the "other" category was not included in this table due to the small number of cases 
reported. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



21 



Written curriculum guide for visual arts. Of 

the elementary schools that offered visual arts 
instruction, 78 percent reported that their district 
had a written curriculum guide in the subject 
(table 12). As with music instruction, schools in 
the West were least likely to report availability of 
a district curriculum guide in visual arts compared 



with schools in other regions of the country 
(62 percent versus 83 to 89 percent). Further, 
schools with the highest concentration of poverty 
were less likely to report a written curriculum 
guide in visual arts than schools with the lowest 
poverty concentration (70 percent versus 
84 percent). 



Table 12. — Percent of public elementary schools offering visual arts instruction, according to the 
availability of a district curriculum guide in visual arts, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



District curriculum guide in visual arts 



All public elementary schools 78 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 75 

300 to 599 79 

600 or more 80 

Locale 

City 83 

Urban fringe 81 

Town 68 

Rural 75 

Region 

Northeast 89 

Southeast 83 

Central 85 

West 62 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 89 

6 to 20 percent 83 

21 to 50 percent 85 

More than 50 percent 62 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 84 

35 to 49 percent 81 

50 to 74 percent 72 

75 percent or more 70 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 87 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in visual arts during the regular school day 
in fall 1999. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



22 



About three-quarters (77 percent) of the schools 
whose districts had a curriculum guide indicated 
that the guide was aligned with their states' 
standards or the National Standards for Arts 
Education (figure 7), although 1 8 percent 
indicated that they did not know if it was or not. 



Eighty-one percent indicated that the visual arts 
curriculum guide had been created or updated in 
the last 5 years, 1 percent said that it had been 
created or updated more than 5 years ago, and 
9 percent of principals did not know when it had 
been created or updated (figure 8). 



Figure 7. — Percentage distribution of 

public elementary schools with 
a written curriculum guide in 
visual arts, according to whether 
the guide was aligned with the 
state's standards or the National 
Standards for Arts Education: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



18%-, 




Figure 8. — Percentage distribution of 
public elementary schools 
with a written curriculum 
guide in visual arts, according 
to whether the curriculum 
guide was created or updated 
in the last 5 years: Academic year 
1999-2000 



10% 




NOTE: Percentages are based on the 68 percent of public elementary 
schools that reported instruction in visual arts and had a district 
written curriculum guide in visual arts; that is, 87 percent that offered 
instruction multiplied by 78 percent that had a written curriculum 
guide. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for 
Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary 
School Arts Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



NOTE: Percentages are based on the 68 percent of public elementary 
schools that reported instruction in visual arts and had a district 
written curriculum guide in visual arts; that is, 87 percent that offered 
instruction multiplied by 78 percent that had a written curriculum 
guide. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for 
Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary 
School Arts Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



23 



Outside funding of visual arts programs. Non- 
district funding of visual arts programs was similar 
to that reported for music programs, with 
22 percent of the public elementary schools that 
offered visual arts indicating that they received 
such funds to support their programs (figure 9). 
Sixty-three percent of these schools reported that 



1 percent or less of the visual arts budget came 
from non-district sources. Another 23 percent of 
schools reported that between 1 1 and 50 percent of 
their visual arts budget was funded in this way, 
and 15 percent reported that more than 50 percent 
of their visual arts budget came from non-district 
sources. 



Figure 9. — Percent of public elementary schools offering visual arts instruction, according to 
whether the school receives funds from non-district sources, and the percent of the 
designated visual arts budget that comes from these sources: Academic year 1999-2000 

Percent 



100 -i 



80 - 



60 - 



40 - 



20 - 







No non-district 
funding (78%) 



Any non-district 
funding (22%) 




1 percent or less 

11 to 50 percent 
More than 50 percent 



63% 

23% 
15% 



NOTE: Percentages are based on the 87 percent of public elementary schools that reported instruction in visual arts during the regular school day 
in fall 1999. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



24 



Characteristics of Dance Instruction 

While most public elementary schools reported 
that a typical student received instruction in music 
and visual arts in 1999-2000, fewer reported the 
same with respect to dance. One-fifth (20 percent) 
of public elementary schools reported that a 
typical student received instruction designated 
specifically for dance during the regular school 
day (see figure 1). However, students could also 
learn dance in the context of other subject areas, 



such as physical education or music. The 
elementary school survey results reveal that in 
1999-2000, about half of all public elementary 
schools (48 percent) incorporated dance or 
creative movement into their physical education 
programs (figure 10). Dance was also taught as 
part of the music curriculum in 48 percent of 
elementary schools. In 28 percent of elementary 
schools, dance was integrated into other, 
unspecified, areas of the curriculum. 



Figure 10. — Percent of public elementary schools indicating various methods of incorporating 

dance or creative movement into other curriculum areas: Academic year 1999-2000 

Percent 



uu - 










80- 








60- 










48 


48 




40- 


! 




28 


20- 


j 








0- 


! 









Dance taught as part of the 
physical education program 



Dance taught as part of the 
music curriculum 



Dance integrated into other 
curriculum areas 



NOTE: Respondents could report more than one method of including dance in their program of study. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



25 



Of the schools offering instruction designated 
specifically for dance, 77 percent reported that 
students received instruction less than once a 
week, and 2 1 percent reported that they received it 
once or twice a week (table 13). 9 The average 
dance class lasted 37 minutes. About one-third 



(37 percent) of the schools that offered dance 
indicated that it was provided for the entire school 
year. Fourteen percent reported that students 
received dance for one-quarter of the year, and 
37 percent indicated that it was provided for less 
than one-quarter of the school year. 



Table 13. — Percent of public elementary schools offering instruction in dance and drama/theatre, 
by various program characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



Program characteristic 



Dance 



Drama/theatre 



Frequency of instruction 

3 or more times a week 1 7 

I or 2 times a week 21 14 

Less than once a week 77 79 

Mean number of minutes per class 37 39 

Portion of the school year instruction is offered 

Entire school year 37 35 

Half the school year 4 5 

One-quarter of the year 14 11 

Less than one-quarter of the school year 37 33 

Other 8 15 

Teachers' 

Full-time, certified specialist 24 16 

Part-time, certified specialist 14 9 

Classroom teacher 41 62 

Artist-in-residence 15 15 

Other 2 20 17 

Space used for instruction 

Dedicated room, with special equipment 14 13 

Dedicated room, no special equipment 4 8 

Gymnasium, auditorium, or cafeteria 58 30 

Regular classrooms only 22 48 

District written curriculum guide in the subject available 49 36 

Curriculum guide based on state standards or the National Standards for Arts Education 3 

Yes 75 87 

No 6 4 

Don't know 20 9 

Funds from non-district sources available for instruction 26 29 

Percent of program budget coming from non-district sources 4 

10 percent or less (#) 36 

I I to 50 percent (#) 36 

More than 50 percent (#) 28 

#Too few cases for a reliable estimate. 

'Percentages may sum to more than 100 because respondents could select more than one type of instructor. 

2 This category combines responses to two separate survey questions about whether each subject was taught by "other faculty members" and by 
"volunteers." 

Based on schools that offered instruction in dance or drama/theatre and reported using a written curriculum guide. 

4 Based on schools that offered dance or drama/theatre and reported non-district funding for these subjects. 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the percent of public elementary schools that offered instruction in the subject during the regular school day in 
fall 1999 (dance, 20 percent; drama/theatre, 19 percent). Percentages (where applicable) may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



Since relatively few schools offered instruction designated speci- 
fically for dance, findings in this section will not be presented by 
school characteristics. 



26 






Dance teachers. In the 20 percent of public 
elementary schools that offered dance instruction, 
24 percent employed full-time certified specialists 
to teach the subject, and 14 percent had part-time 
specialists (table 13). In 41 percent of schools that 
offered dance, classroom teachers provided the 
instruction. Fifteen percent of schools relied on 
artists-in-residence for dance instruction, and 
20 percent of schools employed other faculty 
members or volunteers to teach dance. 



(table 13). In 75 percent of these schools, the 
guide was aligned with their states' standards or 
the National Standards for Arts Education, 
although 20 percent of principals did not know if 
this was the case. Seventy-five percent indicated 
that the dance curriculum guide had been created 
or updated in the last 5 years (not shown in tables). 



Characteristics of Drama/Theatre Instruction 



Space for dance instruction. In schools where 
dance was offered, 14 percent reported a dedicated 
room with special equipment for teaching dance, 
and another 4 percent reported a dedicated room 
with no special equipment (table 13). Fifty- 
eight percent of schools indicated that dance was 
taught in a gym, auditorium, or cafeteria, and 
22 percent of schools taught dance in regular 
classrooms. 

Written curriculum guide for dance. About half 
(49 percent) of the public elementary schools that 
offered dance instruction reported that their district 
had a written curriculum guide in the subject 



About one-fifth (19 percent) of all public 
elementary schools reported that a typical student 
received instruction designated specifically for 
drama/theatre during the regular school day in 
1999-2000 (see figure 1). However, students also 
learned drama/theatre in the context of other 
subject areas, such as English/language arts. The 
elementary school survey showed that almost one- 
third of regular public elementary schools 
(30 percent) incorporated drama/theatre into the 
language arts curriculum (figure 11). In 
43 percent of elementary schools, drama/theatre 
was integrated into other, unspecified, areas of the 
curriculum. 



Figure 11. — Percent of public elementary schools indicating various methods of incorporating 
drama/theatre into other curriculum areas: Academic year 1999-2000 

Percent 

100 1 



80" 



60- 



40- 



20" 



30 





11 



Drama taught as part of the 

English/language arts 

curriculum 



Drama activities integrated 

into other areas of the 

curriculum 



Other approaches to 
including drama activities 



NOTE: Respondents could report more than one method of including drama/theatre in their program of study. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



27 



Of the schools offering drama/theatre, 79 percent 
reported that students received drama/theatre 
instruction less than once a week, and 1 4 percent 
reported that they received it once or twice a week 
(table 13). 10 The average drama/theatre class 
lasted 39 minutes. About one-third (35 percent) of 
the schools that offered drama/theatre indicated 
that it was provided during the entire school year. 
Another 1 1 percent indicated that it was provided 
for one-quarter of the school year, and 33 percent 
reported that students received instruction in 
drama/theatre for less than one-quarter of the year. 

Drama/theatre teachers. Sixteen percent of the 
elementary schools that offered instruction in 
drama/theatre employed full-time certified 
specialists to teach the subject, and 9 percent had 
part-time specialists (table 13). Regular classroom 
teachers taught drama/theatre in 62 percent of 
schools. Fifteen percent of schools relied on 
artists- in-residence, and other faculty members or 
volunteers were responsible for drama/theatre 
instruction in 17 percent of schools. 

Space for drama/theatre instruction. In schools 
where drama/theatre was offered, 1 3 percent had a 
dedicated room with special equipment for 
teaching drama/theatre, and another 8 percent had 
a dedicated room with no special equipment 
(table 13). Forty-eight percent indicated that 
dance was taught in regular classrooms only, and 
30 percent of schools used a gym, auditorium, or 
cafeteria. 



received funding from non-district sources to 
support their programs (table 13). Of those 
schools that received non-district funding, 
36 percent reported that 10 percent or less of the 
drama/theatre budget came from these sources. 
Another 36 percent reported that between 1 1 and 
50 percent of their drama/theatre budget came 
from non-district funds, and 28 percent reported 
that more than 50 percent of their budget came 
from non-district funding. 



Supplemental Arts-Related Activities 
in Public Elementary Schools 

To derive a more complete picture of how public 
elementary schools included the arts in their 
approach to education in 1999-2000, it is 
important to take into account other aspects of 
their programs that could enhance arts instruction. 
For example, what kinds of supplemental 
activities, such as field trips to art museums or 
galleries or to arts performances, are sponsored? 
Do schools support visiting artists or artists-in- 
residence? Do schools provide or sponsor after- 
school activities for students that incorporate the 
arts? How do schools fund these kinds of 
programs? The elementary school arts education 
survey included several questions that addressed 
various ways that public elementary schools 
augment the arts curricula that are offered. 



Written curriculum guide for drama/theatre. 

About one-third (36 percent) of the elementary 
schools that offered instruction in drama/theatre 
reported that their district had a written curriculum 
guide in the subject (table 13). In 87 percent of 
these schools, the guide was aligned with their 
states' standards or the National Standards for Arts 
Education; 9 percent of principals indicated that 
they did not know if this was the case. Eighty- 
two percent indicated that the drama/theatre 
curriculum guide had been created or updated in 
the last 5 years (not shown in tables). 

Outside funding of drama/theatre programs. In 

schools with drama/theatre programs, 29 percent 



l0 As with dance, since relatively few schools offered drama/theatre 
instruction compared with music and visual arts, only national 
findings are presented in this section. 



Availability of Supplemental Programs and 
Activities 

Supplemental programs and activities refer to arts- 
related experiences that go beyond regular course 
offerings and provide students alternative 
opportunities to experience the arts first hand. 
Examples include field trips to arts performances, 
art galleries, and museums. Visiting artists and 
artists-in-residence can also expose students to 
different art forms that they may not have 
experienced in the school curriculum. 

Field trips. Field trips can be scheduled at any 
time during the school year, as can visits from 
performing artists. Therefore, rather than asking 
principals in 1999-2000 to project the kinds of 
arts-related programs and activities that would be 
taking place during the upcoming year, they were 



28 



asked to report on those that had actually taken 
place during the previous school year, 1998-99. 

About three-quarters of public elementary schools 
(77 percent) reported that they had sponsored field 
trips to arts performances during the 1998-99 
school year (table 14). Field trips to arts 
performances were sponsored by small schools 
less frequently than by large schools (67 percent 
versus 86 percent). Field trips to art galleries or 
museums were sponsored by 65 percent of 
elementary schools. 

Visiting artists. Visiting artists and artists-in- 
residence (sometimes called artists-in-the-schools) 
are other ways that schools can give students 
varying degrees of engagement with the arts. For 
the purposes of this survey, visiting artists were 
defined as performing artists who visit schools to 



perform, demonstrate, or teach students for a 
period of 1 week or less. Artists-in-residence are 
performing or visual artists who visit a school for 
an extended period (more than 1 week) for the 
purposes of teaching artistic techniques and 
concepts, conducting inservice teacher training, 
and/or consulting in the development of curricula. 

Thirty-eight percent of public elementary schools 
reported that they had at least one visiting artist 
during the 1998-99 school year (table 14). In the 
schools that had visiting artists, the mean number 
per school was 3.3 (not shown in tables). 
The percentage of public elementary schools that 
sponsored at least one artist-in-residence during 
1998-99 was 22 percent. In the schools that 
sponsored artists-in-residence, the mean number 
per school was 2.1 (not shown in tables). 



Table 14. — Percent of public elementary schools that sponsored various supplemental arts 
education programs, by school characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 



School characteristic 



Field trips 

to arts 

performances 



Field trips to 

art galleries or 

museums 



Visiting 
artist(s) 



Artist(s)-in- 
residence 



After-school 
activities that 
incorporate 
the arts 



All public elementary schools 77 65 38 22 51 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 67 60 32 18 40 

300 to 599 79 65 40 21 51 

600 or more 86 70 41 28 65 

Locale 

City 87 74 45 30 54 

Urban fringe 83 69 39 23 57 

Town 63 52 30 16 48 

Rural 65 53 32 14 41 

Region 

Northeast 79 73 47 31 60 

Southeast 82 57 37 17 42 

Central 74 61 35 23 47 

West 77 67 34 19 55 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 70 58 33 17 45 

6 to 20 percent 79 69 39 25 56 

21 to 50 percent 87 64 40 22 53 

More than 50 percent 75 68 38 24 52 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 79 71 41 26 55 

35 to 49 percent 82 62 34 17 50 

50 to 74 percent 79 56 40 20 45 

75 percent or more 72 65 35 21 50 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



29 



After-school activities. Other avenues to 
expanding students' arts experiences are through 
enrichment options that go beyond the regular 
school day or the school's own arts curriculum. 
About half (51 percent) of public elementary 
schools reported that they provided or sponsored 
after-school activities that incorporate the arts 
(table 14). 11 Large schools were more likely than 
small schools (65 percent versus 40 percent), and 
schools in the Northeast were more likely than 
those in the Southeast to sponsor after-school 
activities that incorporate the arts during the 1 998- 
99 school year (60 percent versus 42 percent). 



Funding Supplemental Programs and Activities 

Funding is essential to maintaining or expanding 
schools' arts programs, and influences whether or 
not schools can offer students field trips or support 



supplemental programs such as visiting artists. 
Elementary school principals were asked to 
indicate among four different funding sources 
which were used to support the supplemental arts 
programs and activities discussed above. The 
sources included state or local arts agencies, state 
or federal education grants, general school or 
district funds, and parent groups. 

The primary source of funding for field trips to art 
galleries or museums, arts performances, and 
artists-in-residence was general school or district 
funds (table 15). Specifically, 63 percent of public 
elementary schools that sponsored field trips to 
arts performances used general school or district 
funds, as did 65 percent of schools that sponsored 
field trips to art galleries or museums. In schools 
that sponsored artists-in-residence, 55 percent used 

1 9 

general school or district funds. 



Table 15. — Percent of public elementary schools that used various funding sources for supplemental 
arts education programs: Academic year 1998-99 



Supplemental arts program 



Percent 

sponsoring 

program 



Source of funding* 



General school 
or district funds 



Parent 
groups 



State or local 
arts agency 



State or federal 
education grant 



Field trips to arts performances 77 63 44 17 7 

Field trips to art galleries or museums 65 65 42 13 6 

Visiting artist(s) 38 44 48 30 17 

Artist(s)-in-residence 22 55 43 34 22 

♦Percentages are based on the percent of public elementary schools that sponsored each program. Percentages sum to more than 100 because 
respondents could select more than one category. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



"All sampled elementary schools are included, not just those with 
established arts programs. 



30 



2 Artists-in-residence were as likely to be supported by funds from 
parent groups as by general school or district funds. Although the 
difference between estimates appears large (43 percent versus 
55 percent), it is not statistically significant because the estimates 
have relatively large standard errors (5.3 and 5.1, respectively). 



Parent groups also were supporters of arts-related 
field trips, visiting artists, and artists-in-residence. 
Forty-four percent of public elementary schools 
that reported field trips to arts performances, and 
42 percent of schools that reported field trips to art 
galleries or museums, indicated using funds from 
parent groups to pay for these activities. Visiting 
artist programs received support from parent 
groups in 48 percent of schools that sponsored 
them, and artist-in-residence programs received 
support from parent groups in 43 percent of 
schools. Elementary schools also used funding 
from state or local arts agencies to support artists- 
in-residence (34 percent), visiting artists 
(30 percent), field trips to arts performances 
(17 percent) and field trips to art galleries and 
museums (13 percent). State or federal education 
grants also were used by elementary schools to 
fund these kinds of programs, from 7 percent 
using such grants for field trips to arts 
performances, to 22 percent using them for artists- 
in-residence. 



Administrative Support for 

Arts Education in 

Public Elementary Schools 

The elementary school survey included several 
questions to address the extent to which arts 
education received administrative support during 
the 1998-99 school year. For example, is arts 
education included in any mission statements or 
school improvement plans? Are schools 
undertaking reform initiatives related to arts 
education? To what extent are arts specialists 
included on site-based management teams or in 
decision-making about how arts programs are 
staffed, structured, or funded? Do arts programs 
and specialists receive the same kind of evaluation 
as other curriculum areas in the school? Is there a 



district-level coordinator responsible for the arts 
programs offered? Finally, to what extent do 
school administrators, non-arts staff members, and 
parents view the arts as essential to a high-quality 
education? All principals to the elementary school 
survey answered these questions, whether or not 
they reported offering specific instruction in any 
of the arts areas discussed previously. 13 



Mission Statements, School Goals, and 
Arts Reform 

Schools often prepare mission statements, yearly 
goals, or school improvement plans to identify 
topics or reforms on which they intend to focus for 
a given period of time. The issues addressed in 
these documents reveal where schools intend to 
expend time, energy, and resources. While 
inclusion of arts education in a school's yearly 
goals does not reflect the extent to which the 
school is focusing on the arts, it does suggest that 
the arts are important enough to be included in 
these goals along with other academic subjects. 
Thus, inclusion of arts education in documents 
such as these is an indicator of the status of the 
arts in schools. Results of the elementary school 
survey show that 45 percent of all schools 
included the arts in their mission statements or 
school improvement plans (table 1 6). 

Thirty-eight percent of elementary schools had 
undertaken a school reform initiative related to 
arts education or the integration of the arts with 
other academic subjects. Small schools were less 
likely than large schools to report any kind of arts 
reform (30 percent versus 46 percent). Also, 
schools in the Northeast and Southeast were more 
likely to report arts reform than schools in the 
Central and Western regions of the country (50 
and 48 percent versus 30 and 32 percent). 



I3 0f the 640 elementary schools surveyed, 10 (or 2 percent) did not 
offer any instruction in music, visual arts, dance, or drama/theatre. 
In addition, of the 640 schools, 16 (or 3 percent) did not have any 
full- or part-time specialists to teach music, visual arts, dance, or 
drama/theatre. 



31 



Table 16. — Percent of public elementary schools in which arts education was included in the 

mission statement or school improvement plan, or that were engaged in some reform 
initiative involving the arts, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Arts education included 

in mission statement 

or school improvement plan 



School reform 

initiatives related to arts education 

or the integration of the arts with 

other academic subjects 



All public elementary schools 45 38 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 36 30 

300 to 599 48 39 

600 or more 50 46 

v 

Locale 

City 48 45 

Urban fringe 48 41 

Town 42 28 

Rural 40 31 

Region 

Northeast 54 50 

Southeast 54 48 

Central 40 30 

West 39 32 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 42 32 

6 to 20 percent 43 35 

21 to 50 percent 50 46 

More than 50 percent 47 42 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 48 39 

35 to 49 percent 43 35 

50 to 74 percent 37 34 

75 percent or more 52 44 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 






32 



Status of Arts Specialists and Programs 
in Public Elementary Schools 

Another way to view the status of arts in schools is 
to look at the position of arts specialists within the 
school staff. Survey results indicate that arts 
specialists were generally included in selected 
management aspects of public elementary schools. 
For example, in 1999-2000, 58 percent of all 
elementary schools indicated that arts specialists 
were included in site-based management or school 
improvement teams, and/or leadership councils 
(table 17). However, small schools (42 percent) 
were less likely than moderate-size schools 
(64 percent) or large schools (65 percent) to 
include arts specialists on these management 
teams. Fewer schools in the West reported that 



this took place compared with schools in the other 
three regions of the country (36 percent versus 63 
to 76 percent). In addition, schools with the 
highest poverty concentration were less likely to 
have arts specialists participating in this aspect of 
school administration than schools with the lowest 
concentration of poverty (46 percent versus 
66 percent). 

Schools were also asked to indicate whether arts 
specialists had input in decisions about three 
aspects of their schools' arts education program: 
curriculum offerings, allocation of arts funding, 
and staff hiring. About two-thirds (67 percent) of 
public elementary schools reported that arts 
specialists had input into the arts curriculum that 
was offered, compared to 55 percent who reported 



Table 17. — Percent of public elementary schools indicating that arts specialists have input in 
selected management issues related to arts instruction, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Site-based 
management/ 

school 

improvement 

teams; leadership 

councils 



Arts curriculum 
offered 



Allocation of 
arts funds 



Hiring of arts 
staff 



All public elementary schools 58 67 55 34 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 42 61 47 28 

300 to 599 64 71 58 34 

600ormore 65 67 57 38 

Locale 

City 64 66 56 34 

Urban fringe 64 73 60 38 

Town 54 60 46 30 

Rural 45 64 50 29 

Region 

Northeast 76 86 68 47 

Southeast 63 60 57 21 

Central 68 76 57 38 

West 36 52 43 30 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 61 74 59 38 

6 to 20 percent 69 76 63 47 

21 to 50 percent 55 67 58 25 

More than 50 percent 50 54 41 24 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 66 75 62 43 

35 to 49 percent 61 69 55 28 

50 to 74 percent 54 64 54 30 

75 percent or more 4(3 50 40 21 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



33 



that arts specialists provided input into decisions 
about the allocation of arts funds. Fewer public 
elementary schools (34 percent) indicated that arts 
specialists had input in decisions about hiring arts 
staff and use of arts funds. As was the case for 
participation in management teams, schools with 
the highest poverty concentration were less likely 
to report input from arts specialists in all three 
areas compared with schools with the lowest 
poverty concentration. Finally, schools with the 
highest minority enrollment were less likely to 
report input from arts specialists into the arts 
curriculum offered and allocation of arts funds 
than schools with less than 20 percent or less 
minority enrollment. 



About three-quarters of public elementary schools 
(77 percent) reported that arts specialists received 
the same kind of performance evaluation as 
teachers in other instructional programs at their 
schools (table 1 8). Seventy-two percent of schools 
reported evaluating the arts program in the same 
manner as they evaluated other instructional 
programs. Seventeen percent of schools reported 
that they conducted standardized or district-wide 
assessments of student performance and 
achievement in the arts. For each of these types of 
evaluation or assessment, schools in the West were 
less likely to report that they were used compared 
with schools in the other three regions of the 
country. 



Table 18. — Percent of public elementary schools indicating various ways that arts programs and 
instruction are assessed, and the presence of a district-level arts coordinator, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Principal evaluates 

arts teachers in the 

same way other 

teachers are 

evaluated 



Principal evaluates 
the arts program in 

the same way 

other programs are 

evaluated 



School conducts 
standardized 
assessment of 

student 

achievement 

in the arts 



District has 

specialist or 

coordinator who is 

responsible for the 

arts programs 

offered 



All public elementary schools 77 72 17 56 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 68 63 14 42 

300 to 599 82 77 19 60 

600 or more 76 72 15 65 

Locale 

City 78 75 21 78 

Urban fringe 80 75 15 65 

Town 75 65 17 31 

Rural 71 68 14 30 

Region 

Northeast 90 87 18 67 

Southeast 77 72 19 61 

Central 88 85 24 53 

West 58 52 8 49 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 82 80 18 46 

6 to 20 percent 86 77 19 63 

2 1 to 50 percent 69 71 15 58 

More than 50 percent 69 61 14 61 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 85 80 19 61 

35 to 49 percent 78 74 17 53 

50 to 74 percent 70 64 14 53 

75 percent or more 64 62 16 55 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



34 



Fifty-six percent of schools had a curriculum 
specialist or program coordinator at the district 
level who was responsible for the arts programs in 
their school (table 18). Small schools were less 
likely to have a district specialist or program 
coordinator than moderate-size or large schools 
(42 percent versus 60 and 65 percent, 
respectively). Schools in cities (78 percent) and 
the urban fringe (65 percent) were more likely 
than schools in towns (31 percent) and rural 
schools (30 percent) to have a district-level 
curriculum specialist or program coordinator, and 
schools in the West (49 percent) were less likely 
than schools in the Northeast (67 percent) to have 
one. In addition, schools with 5 percent or less 
minority enrollment were less likely to have a 
specialist or coordinator than schools with 6 to 
20 percent and more than 50 percent minority 
enrollments (46 percent versus 63 and 
61 percent). 

Perceived status of arts education among 
administrators, other teachers, and parents. 

The survey also asked principals their perceptions 
on the extent to which administrators, non-arts 
teachers, and parents at their schools considered 
the arts an essential part of a high-quality 
education. 15 Response choices included "not at 
all," "to a small extent," "to a moderate extent," 
"to a great extent," and "cannot judge." About 



two-thirds of all school principals (67 percent) 
believed the administrators at their schools 
(presumably including themselves) considered the 
arts essential to a great extent, and 25 percent 
believed that administrators considered the arts 
essential to a moderate extent (table 19). 
Significantly fewer principals in the West 
expressed the belief that administrators considered 
the arts essential to a great extent compared with 
administrators in the Northeast (59 percent versus 
82 percent). The arts were considered essential to 
a great extent by non-arts teaching staff and by 
parents, according to 47 percent and 39 percent of 
principals, respectively. Forty-four percent of 
principals reported that non-arts teaching staff and 
parents considered arts essential to a moderate 
extent. 

Findings indicate that according to principals, 
parents of students in small schools were less 
likely to consider the arts essential to a great 
extent than parents of students in moderate-size 
and large schools (25 percent versus 44 percent). 
In addition, urban fringe schools were more likely 
than schools in towns or rural areas (49 percent 
versus 21 and 31 percent), and schools in cities 
were more likely than those in towns (40 percent 
versus 21 percent) to report that parents consider 
the arts essential to a great extent with respect to 
their children's education. 



"Although the percentage difference between the lowest percent 
minority enrollment category (46 percent) and the highest percent 
minority enrollment category (61 percent) appears large, this 
difference was not statistically significant, due to high standard 
errors. 

15 It should be kept in mind that asking respondents about the beliefs 
of others is subject to a certain degree of subjectivity, and thus the 
results represent the perspective of school principals, but do not 
necessarily reflect the actual views of (other) administrators, 
teachers, and parents. 



35 



Table 19. — Percent of public elementary school principals indicating the extent to which they 
believe individuals at the school and parents consider the arts an essential part of a 
high-quality education, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 





Administrators 


Non-arts teaching staff 


Parents 


School characteristic 


Great 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 


Great 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 


Great 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 



All public elementary schools 67 25 47 44 39 44 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 58 29 42 44 25 48 

300 to 599 70 25 49 43 44 42 

600 or more 73 22 49 44 44 42 

Locale 

City 69 23 48 43 40 44 

Urban fringe 73 23 53 41 49 42 

Town 60 28 33 54 21 49 

Rural 61 30 46 43 31 43 

Region 

Northeast 82 15 56 41 49 40 

Southeast 70 26 42 45 36 46 

Central 65 26 49 42 33 47 

West 59 31 44 46 38 42 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 70 23 51 42 35 42 

6 to 20 percent 71 23 51 45 46 42 

21 to 50 percent 66 28 50 41 48 38 

More than 50 percent 64 28 39 47 28 52 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 73 19 54 41 50 40 

35 to 49 percent 73 23 49 45 39 45 

50 to 74 percent 59 35 38 50 26 50 

75 percent or more 60 28 40 44_ 29 47 

NOTE: Other response categories included "not at all," "small extent," and "cannot judge." Results for these responses are not presented. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



36 



3. ARTS EDUCATION IN 
PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS 



Highlights 

Music and visual arts instruction were offered in most of the nation's public secondary schools (90 
and 93 percent, respectively) in 1999-2000. Dance and drama/theatre instruction were less 
commonly offered within secondary schools ( 1 4 and 48 percent, respectively). 

Most public secondary schools that offered music, visual arts, dance, and drama/theatre employed 
full-time specialists to teach these subjects, with 91 percent reporting one or more full-time music 
specialists, 94 percent reporting one or more full-time visual arts specialists, 77 percent reporting 
one or more full-time dance specialists, and 84 percent reporting one or more full-time drama/theatre 
specialists. 

In 1999-2000, 91 percent of public secondary schools that offered music instruction had dedicated 
music rooms with special equipment for teaching the subject, and 87 percent of those with visual arts 
instruction had dedicated art rooms with special equipment. Of the schools that offered dance, 
41 percent provided dedicated dance spaces with special equipment, and of those that offered 
drama/theatre, 53 percent provided dedicated theatre spaces with special equipment. 

Field trips to arts performances were sponsored by 69 percent of regular public secondary schools 
during the 1998-99 school year, and 68 percent sponsored field trips to art galleries or museums. 
Thirty- four percent of secondary schools sponsored visiting artists, 18 percent sponsored artists-in- 
residence, and 73 percent sponsored after-school activities in the arts during the 1998-99 school 
year. 



Availability and Characteristics 
of Arts Education Programs 
in Public Secondary Schools 

In secondary schools, arts education is typically 
provided through elective courses that are taught 
by arts teachers or specialists. Therefore, the 
secondary school survey differed from the 
elementary school survey in the kinds of 
information it requested. In order to determine the 
availability of arts education in public secondary 
schools, principals were asked a series of 
questions about their schools' programs in music, 
visual arts, dance, and drama/theatre. The first 
question addressed whether each arts subject was 
taught at the school during the regular school day. 
If so, principals were asked to provide further 
details on their instructional programs, such as the 
number of different courses offered in the subject, 
the number of full- and part-time teachers on staff 
who taught courses in the subject, and the type of 



space in which the subject was taught. As in the 
elementary school survey, principals were also 
asked if the district provided a written curriculum 
guide in the subject and whether the school 
received monies from non-district sources to assist 
in funding the arts programs. The secondary 
school survey also included a set of questions that 
allowed principals to describe ways in which 
creative writing was taught and incorporated into 
the curriculum. This was included to determine 
whether creative writing was considered a 
program of instruction that emphasized writing as 
an art form, separate from how it is taught or used 
in English courses or other curriculum areas. 



Availability of Arts Education Programs 

Most public secondary schools offered instruction 
in music, with 90 percent of all schools reporting 
that it was offered during the regular school day in 
1999-2000 (figure 12 and table 20). Visual arts 



37 



instruction was also offered in most secondary 
schools (93 percent). Fewer secondary schools 
(48 percent) reported that drama/theatre was 
taught during the regular school day, and dance 
was offered in even fewer secondary schools 
(14 percent). The percentages of schools that 
offered each of these arts subjects are presented in 
table 20, by various school characteristics. In 
general, large schools were more likely than small 
ones to offer instruction in each subject, but these 
differences were especially noticeable for dance 
and drama/theatre. Four percent of small schools 
reported instruction in dance, compared with 
32 percent of large schools. Similarly, 30 percent 
of small schools had instruction in drama/theatre, 



compared with 75 percent of large schools. 
Differences in arts offerings by other school 
characteristics will be discussed for each subject in 
the sections that follow. 



Characteristics of Music Instruction 

Despite the overall prevalence of music instruction 
in public secondary schools, large schools were 
more likely than small schools to offer instruction 
in music (95 percent versus 84 percent) (table 20). 
The percentage of secondary schools offering 
music instruction did not vary by other school 
characteristics. 



Figure 12. — Percent of public secondary schools offering music, visual arts, dance, and 
drama/theatre instruction: Academic year 1999-2000 




93 



48 



14 





Music 



Visual arts 



Dance 



Drama/theatre 



SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



38 



Table 20. — Percent of public secondary schools offering instruction in various arts subjects, by 
school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Music 



Visual arts 



Dance 



Drama/theatre 



All public secondary schools 90 93 14 48 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 84 84 4 30 

400 to 999 92 95 11 46 

1,000 or more 95 98 32 75 

Locale 

City 90 96 22 50 

Urban fringe 94 96 17 58 

Town 89 91 13 50 

Rural 87 87 6 37 

Region 

Northeast 93 98 13 38 

Southeast 84 87 13 53 

Central 92 95 6 40 

West 90 91 23 58 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 90 94 9 39 

6 to 20 percent 93 92 13 57 

21 to 50 percent 92 97 17 56 

More than 50 percent 87 88 21 46 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 percent 92 96 16 53 

35 to 49 percent 92 93 11 48 

50 to 74 percent 89 85 12 38 

75 percent or more 89 85 13 36 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



39 



Number of music courses offered. Principals at 
schools that offered music instruction were asked 
to report the number of music courses that were 
taught during the 1998-99 school year. Thirty- 
one percent of public secondary schools that 
offered music instruction taught one or two 
courses, 26 percent taught three or four courses, 
1 8 percent taught five or six courses, and 
26 percent taught more than six music courses 



(table 21). Large schools were more likely than 
moderate-size or small schools to offer more than 
six courses in music (48 percent versus 24 and 
9 percent). Schools in cities and urban fringe 
areas were more likely than rural schools to offer 
more than six courses (38 and 33 percent versus 
1 1 percent). 



Table 21. — Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering music instruction, 

according to the number of different music courses taught, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1998-99 



School characteristic 



lor 2 
courses 



3 or 4 
courses 



5 or 6 
courses 



More than 6 
courses 



All public secondary schools 31 26 18 26 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 54 29 8 9 

400 to 999 26 29 20 24 

1,000 or more 11 18 23 48 

Locale 

City 17 32 13 38 

Urban fringe 21 23 23 33 

Town 28 31 19 23 

Rural 52 23 14 11 

Region 

Northeast 22 28 ,22 28 

Southeast 29 25 17 29 

Central 32 25 20 23 

West 35 27 13 25 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 34 30 18 18 

6 to 20 percent 29 17 18 36 

21 to 50 percent 29 23 15 32 

More than 50 percent 29 33 20 19 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 percent 25 28 17 31 

35 to 49 percent 41 26 13 20 

50 to 74 percent 43 23 20 14 

75 percent or more 30 30 23 18 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 90 percent of public secondary schools that reported offering instruction in music in fall 1999. Row 
percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



40 



Number of music teachers on staff. Principals 
were asked to report the number of full-time and 
part-time teachers who taught music courses 
during the 1998-99 school year. Principals were 
instructed to consider any itinerant teachers as 
part-time staff, even if these teachers were full- 
time employees of the district. Overall, most 
public secondary schools that offered music had at 
least one full-time music teacher on staff who 
taught courses in the subject, with 38 percent of 



schools reporting one full-time teacher, 34 percent 
reporting two full-time teachers, and 19 percent 
reporting three or more (figure 13). Sixty- 
two percent of public secondary schools that 
offered music reported no part-time teachers on 
staff who taught courses in the subject. Twenty- 
five percent of secondary schools reported one 
part-time teacher who taught courses in music, 
9 percent reported two part-time teachers, and 
3 percent reported three or more. 



Figure 13. — Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering music instruction, 

according to the numbers of full-time and part-time teachers who taught courses in the 
subject: Academic year 1998-99 

Percent 



100 -, 



80- 



60 



62 




25 





12 3 

or more 
Number of full-time teachers 







1 2 3 

or more 
Number of part-time teachers 



NOTE: Percentages are based on the 90 percent of public secondary schools that reported offering instruction in music in fall 1999. Percentages 
may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



41 



The percentage of schools with two or more full- 
time teachers on staff who taught courses in music 
varied by locale, geographic region, and poverty 
concentration (table 22). Schools in cities 
(65 percent), the urban fringe (65 percent), and 
towns (59 percent) were more likely than rural 
schools (30 percent) to have two or more full-time 
teachers. Schools in the Northeast were more 



likely to have two or more full-time teachers on 
staff than schools in the West (7 1 percent versus 
43 percent). Also, schools with the lowest 
concentration of poverty were more likely than 
those with 50 to 74 percent concentration of 
poverty to have two or more full-time teachers on 
staff who taught courses in music (60 percent 
versus 40 percent). 16 



Table 22. — Percent of public secondary schools offering music instruction and reporting two or 
more full-time teachers on staff who taught music courses, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1998-99 




School characteristic 



Two or more full-time music teachers* 



All public secondary schools 53 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 25 

400 to 999 59 

1,000 or more 73 

Locale 

City 65 

Urban fringe . 65 

Town 59 

Rural : 30 

Region 

Northeast 71 

Southeast 55 

Central 52 

West 43 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 46 

6 to 20 percent 60 

21 to 50 percent 62 

More than 50 percent 49 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 60 

35 to 49 percent 46 

50 to 74 percent 40 

75 percent or more 40 

*Full-time teachers that taught courses in music (e.g., band) were not necessarily full-time music teachers. 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 90 percent of public secondary schools that reported offering instruction in music in fall 1999. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



l6 Although the percentage difference between the lowest poverty 
category (60 percent) and the highest poverty category (40 percent) 
appears large, this difference was not statistically significant, due to 
high standard errors. 



42 



Space for music instruction. Overall, most 
public secondary schools that offered music had a 
dedicated room with special equipment for 
teaching music (91 percent) (table 23). The 



percentage of schools that had a dedicated room 
with special equipment showed no clear patterns 
by school characteristics, with little measurable 
variation. 



Table 23. — Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering music instruction, 
according to the space used for teaching the subject, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Dedicated 

room(s), with 

special equipment 



Dedicated 

room(s), no 

special equipment 



Gymnasium, 

auditorium, or 

cafeteria 



Other 



All public elementary schools 91 6 2 1 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 91 4 4 1 

400 to 999 89 9 1 1 

1,000 or more 96 3 1 1 

Locale 

City 87 11 1 1 

Urban fringe 93 4 1 1 

Town 92 6 1 

Rural 90 5 4 1 

Region 

Northeast 92 5 2 1 

Southeast 88 8 2 1 

Central 94 6 2 

West 89 7 3 2 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 93 3 2 1 

6 to 20 percent 95 4 1 

21 to 50 percent 86 10 5 

More than 50 percent 87 10 3 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 95 3 1 (#) 

35 to 49 percent 88 8 3 1 

50 to 74 percent 85 11 4 (#) 

75 percent or more 76 17 7 

#Estimate less than 0.5 percent. 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 90 percent of public secondary schools that reported offering instruction in music in fall 1999. Row 
percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



43 



Written curriculum guide for music. Of the 

secondary schools that offered instruction in 
music, 86 percent reported that their district had a 
written curriculum guide in music that the teachers 
were expected to follow (not shown in tables). Of 
the schools that had curriculum guides in music, 
80 percent indicated that the curriculum guide was 
aligned with their states' standards or the National 



Standards for Arts Education (figure 14). 
However, 17 percent of principals did not know if 
it was aligned or not. Also, 83 percent indicated 
that the music curriculum guide had been created 
or updated in the last 5 years, and 1 percent of 
principals did not know when the guide had been 
created (figure 15). 



Figure 14. — Percentage distribution of public 
secondary schools with a written 
curriculum guide in music, 
according to whether the guide was 
aligned with the state's standards 
or the National Standards for Arts 
Education: Academic year 
1999-2000 



17% 




■ Yes 

□ No 

II Don't know 



Figure 15. — Percentage distribution of 
public secondary schools 
with a written curriculum 
guide in music, according to 
whether the guide was 
created or updated in the last 
5 years: Academic year 
1999-2000 



10% 



^80% 




■ Yes 
□ No 

■ Don't know 



83% 



NOTE: Percentages are based on the 76 percent of public secondary 
schools that reported offering instruction in music and that had a 
district written curriculum guide in music; that is, 90 percent that 
offered instruction multiplied by 86 percent that had a written 
curriculum guide. Percentages do not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for 
Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary 
School Arts Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



NOTE: Percentages are based on the 76 percent of public secondary 
schools that reported offering instruction in music and that had a 
district written curriculum guide in music; that is, 90 percent that 
offered instruction multiplied by 86 percent that had a written 
curriculum guide. Percentages do not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for 
Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary 
School Arts Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 






44 



Outside funding of music programs. Principals 
were asked whether their schools received funding 
from outside (non-district) sources, including (but 
not limited to) parent groups, booster clubs, or 
local businesses, to fund their instructional 
programs in music. If they did, principals were 
asked to indicate the approximate percentage of 
the music budget that came from these sources. 
Unlike public elementary schools that had limited 
non-district funding of music programs 
(20 percent), nearly half of public secondary 



schools (47 percent) received non-district funding 
for their music programs (table 24). Schools with 
the highest minority enrollment were less likely to 
report this kind of funding than schools with the 
lowest minority enrollment (33 percent versus 
56 percent), as were schools with the highest 
poverty concentration compared with those with 
less than 35 percent and 35 to 49 percent poverty 
concentrations (23 percent versus 54 and 
47 percent, respectively). 



Table 24. — Percent of public secondary schools offering music instruction and receiving funds from 
non-district sources to fund the music program, by school characteristics: Academic 
year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Non-district funding 



All public secondary schools 47 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 38 

400 to 999 47 

1,000 or more 58 

Locale 

City 47 

Urban fringe 49 

Town 53 

Rural 42 

Region 

Northeast 37 

Southeast 54 

Central 58 

West 37 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 56 

6 to 20 percent 47 

21 to 50 percent 48 

More than 50 percent 33 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 54 

35 to 49 percent 47 

50 to 74 percent 37 

75 percent or more 23 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 90 percent of public secondary schools that reported offering instruction in music in fall 1999. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



45 



About half (53 percent) of the secondary schools 
with access to non-district funding reported that 
10 percent or less of their music budget came from 
such sources (figure 16). Another 34 percent 
reported that between 1 1 and 50 percent of their 
music budget was funded in this way, and 
13 percent reported that more than 50 percent of 
their budget was funded from non-district funds. 



Characteristics of Visual Arts Instruction 

Visual arts instruction, like music instruction, was 
available at most regular public secondary schools 
(93 percent) (table 20). Large and moderate-size 
schools were more likely than small schools to 
offer instruction in visual arts (98 and 95 percent 
versus 84 percent). 



Figure 16. — Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering music instruction and 
receiving funds from non-district sources, by the percent of the designated music 
budget that came from these sources: Academic year 1999-2000 

Percent 



100 n 



80 - 



60 - 



40 - 



20 - 







No non-district 
funding (53%) 



Any non-district 
funding (47%) 




1 percent or less 

11 to 50 percent 
More than 50 percent 



NOTE: Percentages are based on the 90 percent of public secondary schools that reported instruction in music during the regular school day in 
fall 1999. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



46 



Number of visual arts courses offered. 

Principals at schools that offered visual arts were 
also asked to report the number of courses that 
were taught during the 1998-99 school year. To 
summarize the number of visual arts courses 
offered, 28 percent of public secondary schools 
that offered visual arts reported that one or two 
courses were taught, 34 percent reported three or 
four courses, 20 percent reported five or six 



courses, and 1 8 percent reported more than six 
visual arts courses in their arts curriculum 
(table 25). Large schools were more likely to offer 
more than six visual arts courses than moderate- 
size or small schools (39 percent versus 14 and 
6 percent, respectively). Schools in the Northeast 
were more likely to offer more than six courses 
compared with schools in the other regions of the 
country (34 percent versus 8 to 19 percent). 



Table 25. — Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering visual arts instruction, 
according to the number of different visual arts courses taught, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 



School characteristic 



lor 2 
courses 



3 or 4 
courses 



5 or 6 
courses 



More than 6 
courses 



All public secondary schools 28 34 20 18 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 45 34 15 6 

400 to 999 27 38 21 14 

1,000 or more 11 25 25 39 

Locale 

City 30 34 19 17 

Urban fringe 26 28 22 25 

Town 24 41 18 17 

Rural 31 36 21 13 

Region 

Northeast 24 27 15 34 

Southeast 27 43 21 8 

Central 26 31 23 19 

West 33 33 20 14 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 24 36 23 18 

6 to 20 percent 25 29 20 26 

21 to 50 percent 30 33 21 15 

More than 50 percent 34 36 16 14 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 percent 24 32 21 23 

35 to 49 percent 37 32 21 10 

50 to 74 percent 32 39 22 8 

75 percent or more 42 33 9 16 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 93 percent of public secondary schools that reported offering instruction in visual arts in fall 1999. Row 
percentages may not sum to 1 00 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



47 



Number of visual arts teachers on staff. 

Principals were asked to report the number of full- 
time and part-time teachers who taught visual arts 
courses during the 1998-99 school year. Overall, 
most public secondary schools that offered the 
subject had one full-time teacher on staff who 
taught visual arts courses (62 percent), compared 



with 20 percent with two full-time teachers, and 
13 percent with three or more (figure 17). 
Seventy-eight percent of secondary schools did not 
employ any part-time teachers (78 percent) who 
taught courses in visual arts; 20 percent employed 
one part-time teacher; and 2 percent employed two 
or more. 



Figure 17. — Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering visual arts instruction, 

according to the numbers of full-time and part-time teachers who taught courses in the 
subject: Academic year 1998-99 



Percent 

100 n 



80- 



60- 



40- 



20 



78 



62 



20 



20 









1 2 3 

or more 
Number of full-time teachers 



12 3 

or more 

Number of part-time teachers 



NOTE: Percentages are based on the 93 percent of public secondary schools that reported offering instruction in visual arts in fall 1999. 
Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



48 



The percentage of secondary schools with two or 
more full-time teachers who taught visual arts 
courses varied by geographic region and minority 
enrollment. Schools in the Northeast were the 
most likely to have two or more full-time teachers 
on staff who taught visual arts courses than 
schools in the other regions of the country 



(50 percent versus 25 to 33 percent) (table 26). 
Schools with the lowest minority enrollment were 
less likely to have two or more full-time teachers 
than schools with 6 to 20 percent and more than 
50 percent minority enrollments (22 percent versus 
42 and 36 percent). 



Table 26. — Percent of public secondary schools offering visual arts instruction and reporting two 
or more full-time teachers on staff who taught visual arts courses, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 



School characteristic 



Two or more full-time teachers* 



All public secondary schools 32 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 8 

400 to 999 23 

1,000 or more 75 

Locale 

City 49 

Urban fringe 45 

Town 20 

Rural 14 

Region 

Northeast 50 

Southeast 25 

Central 27 

West 33 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 22 

6 to 20 percent 42 

21 to 50 percent 33 

More than 50 percent 36 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 37 

35 to 49 percent 25 

50 to 74 percent 26 

75 percent or more 25 

*Full-time teachers that taught courses in visual arts were not necessarily visual arts specialists. 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 93 percent of public secondary schools that reported offering instruction in visual arts in fall 1999. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



49 



Space for visual arts instruction. Overall, 
87 percent of the public secondary schools that 
offered visual arts had a dedicated room with 
special equipment for teaching the subject 
(table 27). This finding varied little by school 
characteristics. One exception was that rural 
schools were less likely than urban fringe schools 
and schools in towns to have a dedicated room 
with special equipment for teaching visual arts 
(78 percent versus 92 and 93 percent). Another 



exception was that schools with the highest level 
of poverty concentration were less likely to have a 
dedicated room with special equipment than 
schools with the lowest poverty concentration 
(65 percent versus 92 percent). Conversely, 
schools with the highest concentration of poverty 
were more likely than schools with the lowest 
poverty concentration to have a dedicated room 
without special equipment for teaching visual arts 
(22 percent versus 6 percent). 



Table 27. — Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering visual arts instruction, 
according to the space used for teaching the subject, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Dedicated 

room(s), with 

special equipment 



Dedicated 

room(s), no 

special equipment 



Gymnasium, 

auditorium, or 

cafeteria 



Other 



All public elementary schools 87 9 1 3 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 82 8 1 9 

400 to 999 89 10 2 

1,000 or more 91 8 1 (#) 

Locale 

City 87 12 1 (#) 

Urban fringe 92 6 1 

Town 93 5 • 2 

Rural 78 13 1 8 

Region 

Northeast 88 11 1 

Southeast 87 11 2 

Central 93 4 (#) 2 

West 80 13 1 6 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 89 6 1 3 

6 to 20 percent 89 9 (#) 2 

21 to50percent 86 12 1 

More than 50 percent 82 12 6 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 percent 92 6 (#) 2 

35 to 49 percent 87 10 3 

50 to 74 percent 79 15 2 4 

75 percent or more 65 22 13 

#Estimate less than 0.5 percent. 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 93 percent of public secondary schools that reported offering instruction in visual arts in fall 1999. Row 
percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



50 



Written curriculum guide for visual arts. Of 

the secondary schools that offered instruction in 
visual arts, 87 percent reported that their district 
had a written curriculum guide in visual arts (not 
shown in tables). Of the schools that had a written 
curriculum guide in visual arts, 81 percent 
indicated that it was aligned with their states' 
standards or the National Standards for Arts 



Education (figure 1 8). Fifteen percent of 

principals indicated that they did not know if this 
was the case. Also, 82 percent indicated that the 
visual arts curriculum guide had been created or 
updated in the last 5 years, although 8 percent of 
principals did not know when the guide had been 
created or updated (figure 19). 



Figure 18. — Percentage distribution of public 
secondary schools with a written 
curriculum guide in visual arts, 
according to whether the guide was 
aligned with the state's standards 
or the National Standards for Arts 
Education: Academic year 1999- 
2000 



Figure 19. — Percentage distribution of 
public secondary schools 
with a written curriculum 
guide in visual arts, according 
to whether the guide was 
created or updated in the last 
5 years: Academic year 
1999-2000 



15% 




■ Yes 

□ No 

H Don't know 



10°/o 



^81% 




■ Yes 

□ No 

■ Don't know 



NOTE: Percentages are based on the 81 percent of public secondary 
schools that reported offering instruction in visual arts and that had a 
district written curriculum guide in visual arts; that is, 93 percent that 
offered instruction multiplied by 87 percent that had a written 
curriculum guide. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for 
Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary 
School Arts Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



NOTE: Percentages are based on the 81 percent of public secondary 
schools that reported offering instruction in visual arts and that had a 
district written curriculum guide in visual arts; that is, 93 percent that 
offered instruction multiplied by 87 percent that had a written 
curriculum guide. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for 
Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary 
School Arts Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



51 



Outside funding of visual arts programs. Non- 
district funding of visual arts programs in public 
secondary schools (18 percent) was not as 
prevalent as it was for music (47 percent) 
(figure 20). Eighteen percent of secondary schools 
indicated that they typically receive funding from 
parent groups, booster clubs, or local businesses to 
support the education program in visual arts (not 
shown in tables). Moreover, non-district funding 
represented a small percentage of the visual arts 



budget in the majority of schools. About three- 
quarters of these schools (74 percent) reported that 
10 percent or less of the visual arts budget came 
from non-district sources (figure 20). Another 
14 percent of schools reported that between 1 1 and 
50 percent of their visual arts budget was thus 
funded, and 12 percent reported that more than 
50 percent of their budget came from non-district 
funds. 



Figure 20. — Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering visual arts instruction and 
receiving funds from non-district sources, by the percent of the designated visual arts 
budget that comes from these sources: Academic year 1999-2000 

Percent 



100 



80 



60 - 



40 - 



20 - 







No non-district 
funding (53%) 



Any non-district 
funding (47%) 




10 percent or less 

11 to 50 percent 
More than 50 percent 



74% 

14% 
12% 



NOTE: Percentages are based on the 93 percent of public secondary schools that reported instruction in visual arts during the regular school day 
in fall 1999. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



52 



Characteristics of Dance Instruction 

In 1999-2000, 14 percent of public secondary 
schools reported that dance was taught during the 
regular school day (table 20). As noted earlier, 
large schools were more likely than small schools 
to include dance instruction in their instructional 
programs (32 percent versus 4 percent). Of the 
secondary schools that had dance instruction, 
71 percent offered one or two courses in the 
subject during the 1998-99 school year, 21 percent 
offered three or four courses, and 8 percent offered 
five or more dance courses (table 28). 



Dance teachers and space for instruction. 

Among the public secondary schools that offered 
dance instruction, 77 percent reported that at least 
one full-time teacher taught dance courses during 
the 1998-99 school year. Part-time teachers 
taught dance in 29 percent of schools. Dance 
teachers were provided a dedicated room with 
special equipment in 41 percent of the public 
secondary schools that offered this subject. 
Another 13 percent of schools provided a 
dedicated room with no special equipment, and 
44 percent indicated that dance instruction took 
place in a gym, auditorium, or cafeteria. 



Table 28. — Percent and percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering dance and 
drama/theatre instruction, by various program characteristics: Academic year 1999- 
2000 



Program characteristic 



Dance 



Drama/theatre 



Number of courses offered in 1998-99 

I or 2 courses 71 68 

3 or 4 courses 21 22 

5 or 6 courses 4 6 

More than 6 courses 4 4 

Types of teachers 

One or more full-time teachers 77 84 

One or more part-time teachers 29 22 

Space used for instruction 

Dedicated room, with special equipment 41 53 

Dedicated room, no special equipment 13 24 

Gymnasium, auditorium, or cafeteria 44 18 

Other 2 5 

District curriculum guide in the subject available 68 75 

Curriculum guide based on state standards or the National Standards for Arts Education 1 

Yes 74 76 

No 5 2 

Don't know 22 22 

Funds from non-district sources available for instruction 34 23 

Percent of program budget coming from non-district sources 2 

10 percent or less 44 57 

I I to 50 percent 40 23 

More than 50 percent 16 20 

'Based on the percentage of schools that reported a written curriculum guide. 

2 Based on the percentage of schools that reported non-district funding. 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the percent of public secondary schools that reported offering instruction in each subject in fall 1999 (dance, 14 
percent; drama/theatre, 48 percent). Percentages (where applicable) may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



53 



Written curriculum guide for dance. Sixty- 
eight percent of the public secondary schools that 
offered dance instruction reported that their district 
had a written curriculum guide in the subject. In 
74 percent of these schools, the guide was aligned 
with their states' standards or the National 
Standards for Arts Education, although 22 percent 
of principals did not know whether this was the 
case. 

Outside funding of dance programs. In schools 
that offered dance, 34 percent received non-district 
funding to support their programs. Forty- 
four percent of the schools that received non- 
district funding reported that this represented 
1 percent or less of their dance budget. Another 
40 percent reported between 1 1 and 50 percent of 
their budget, and 1 6 percent reported that more 
than 50 percent of their dance budget came from 
non-district funding. 



instruction reported that their district had a written 
curriculum guide in the subject. In 76 percent of 
these schools, the guide was aligned with their 
states' standards or the National Standards for Arts 
Education. However, 22 percent of principals 
indicated that they did not know if this was the 
case. 

Outside funding of drama/theatre programs. 

About one-quarter (23 percent) of the public 
secondary schools that offered drama/theatre 
received non-district funding to support their 
programs. Fifty-seven percent of schools reported 
that 1 percent or less of their drama/theatre 
budget came from non-district funding, 23 percent 
reported between 1 1 and 50 percent of their 
budget, and 20 percent reported that more than 
50 percent of their budget came from non-district 
funding. 



Characteristics of Drama/Theatre Instruction 

In 1999-2000, 48 percent of public secondary 
schools reported that drama/theatre was taught 
during the regular school day. Sixty-eight percent 
of these schools indicated that one or two courses 
were offered in drama/theatre during the 1998-99 
school year, 22 percent reported that three or four 
courses were offered, and 10 percent reported that 
five or more courses were offered in the subject 
(table 28). 

Drama/theatre teachers and space for 
instruction. Of the public secondary schools that 
offered drama/theatre instruction, 84 percent 
reported that at least one full-time teacher taught 
courses in the subject during the 1998-99 school 
year. Part-time teachers taught drama/theatre 
courses at 22 percent of schools. In schools where 
drama/theatre was offered, 53 percent indicated 
that it was taught in a dedicated room with special 
equipment, compared with 24 percent of schools 
that used a dedicated room with no special 
equipment, and 1 8 percent that used a gym, 
auditorium, or cafeteria. 

Written curriculum guide for drama/theatre. 

Three-quarters (75 percent) of the public 
secondary schools that offered drama/theatre 



Creative Writing as Arts Instruction 

The secondary school survey also included 
questions about the ways creative writing is taught 
in schools, since this subject is frequently 
considered a component of arts education. For the 
purposes of the survey, creative writing was 
defined as an instructional program that describes 
the process and techniques of original composition 
in various literary forms, such as short stories, 
plays, and poetry. Principals were asked whether 
their schools offered separate courses in creative 
writing, whether processes and techniques in 
creative writing were taught in courses offered by 
their English departments, and whether creative 
writing activities and instruction were integrated 
into other, unspecified, areas of the curriculum. 

Thirty-five percent of public secondary schools 
offered separate courses in creative writing in 
1999-2000, and 90 percent of schools reported 
that creative writing processes and techniques 
were taught in courses offered by their English 
departments (figure 21). In addition, 81 percent 
reported that creative writing activities and 
instruction were integrated into other areas of the 
curriculum. 



54 



Figure 21. — Percent of public secondary schools reporting various ways that creative writing is 
taught or included in the school curriculum: Academic year 1999-2000 



Percent 

100 T 



80- 



60 



40- 



20- 



90 



35 





81 




Courses in 
creative writing 
taught at school 



Creative writing techniques Creative writing integrated 
taught in English department into other areas of the 

curriculum 



SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



Supplemental Arts-Related Activities 
in Public Secondary Schools 

The secondary school survey included several 
questions that addressed various ways that public 
secondary schools may augment the arts curricula 
that are offered. With a few exceptions, these 
questions were identical to those included in the 
elementary school survey. 



Availability of Supplemental Programs and 
Activities 

Field trips and visits from performing artists can 
be scheduled at any time during the school year. 
Thus, rather than asking principals in fall 1999 to 
project the kinds of arts-related programs and 
activities that would be taking place during the 
upcoming year, they were asked to report on those 
that had actually taken place during the previous 



school year, 1998-99. During the 1998-99 school 
year, 69 percent of public secondary schools 
sponsored field trips to art performances, and 
68 percent sponsored field trips to art galleries or 
museums (table 29). Field trips to galleries or 
museums were more likely to be sponsored by 
large schools than by small or moderate-size 
schools (82 percent versus 64 percent). 

Thirty-four percent of public secondary schools 
had at least one visiting artist during the 1998-99 
school year. Among schools that had sponsored 
visiting artists during that time, the overall mean 
number reported per school was 2.5 (not shown in 
tables). Eighteen percent of public secondary 
schools supported artists-in-residence during the 
1998-99 school year. More schools in the 
Northeast supported artists-in-residence than 
schools in other regions of the country (33 percent 
versus 14 to 16 percent). The mean number of 
artists-in-residence supported by these schools was 
2.0 (not shown in tables). 



55 



Other avenues for expanding students' arts 
experiences are through enrichment options that 
go beyond the regular school day or the school's 
own arts curriculum. About three-quarters 
(73 percent) of public secondary schools provided 
or sponsored after-school activities that 
incorporated the arts. Large schools were more 
likely to sponsor these activities than small 
schools (83 percent versus 64 percent). Schools in 
the urban fringe were more likely than schools in 
towns and rural areas to sponsor after-school 
activities (83 percent versus 63 and 65 percent). 



support the supplemental arts programs and 
activities discussed above. The sources included 
state or local arts agencies, state or federal 
education grants, general school or district funds, 
and parent groups. Seventy-nine percent of 
schools that sponsored field trips to art galleries or 
museums were funded by general school or district 
funds, as were 79 percent of schools that 
sponsored trips to arts performances (table 30). In 
schools that sponsored visiting artists, 58 percent 
reported that general school or district funds 
supported the programs, and 50 percent supported 
artists-in-residence this way. 



Funding Supplemental Programs and Activities 

Secondary schools were asked to indicate which 
among four different funding sources were used to 



Table 29. — Percent of public secondary schools that sponsored various supplemental arts education 
programs, by school characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 



School characteristic 



Field trips 

to arts 

performances 



Field trips to 

art galleries or 

museums 



Visiting 
artist(s) 



Artist(s)-in- 
residence 



After-school 
activities that 
incorporate 
the arts 



All public secondary schools 69 68 34 18 73 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 65 64 33 15 64 

400 to 999 69 64 32 21 75 

1,000 ormore 77 82 38 18 83 

Locale 

City 72 68 33 19 79 

Urban fringe 74 74 35 21 83 

Town 60 54 35 10 63 

Rural 67 72 33 19 65 

Region 

Northeast 78 80 37 33 83 

Southeast 67 63 33 14 71 

Central 71 67 34 16 76 

West 64 68 33 15 68 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 71 72 32 20 74 

6 to 20 percent 71 67 38 18 75 

21 to 50 percent 64 70 36 19 79 

More than 50 percent 72 66 28 15 68 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 percent 74 74 34 19 78 

35 to 49 percent 67 62 36 26 76 

50 to 74 percent 61 60 34 15 61 

75 percent or more 63 68 28 14 66 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



56 



Table 30. — Percent of public secondary schools that used various funding sources for supplemental 
arts education programs: Academic year 1998-99 



Supplemental arts program 



Percent 

sponsoring 

program 



Source of funding* 



General school 
or district funds 



Parent 
groups 



State or local 
arts agency 



State or federal 
education grant 



Field trips to arts performances 69 79 32 7 5 

Field trips to art galleries or museums 68 79 27 10 5 

Visiting artist(s) 34 58 22 21 18 

Artist(s)-in-residence 18 50 24 36 26 

*Based on the percent of schools sponsoring that type of program. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



Parent groups were also supporters of field trips 
and artists in the schools, with between 22 and 
32 percent of schools having access to such funds 
for these purposes. Some secondary schools used 
funding from state or local arts agencies to support 
artists-in-residence (36 percent), visiting artists 
(21 percent), field trips to art galleries and 
museums ( 1 percent), and trips to arts 
performances (7 percent). Also, some schools 
used funds from state or federal grants to support 
artists-in-residence (26 percent), visiting artists 
(18 percent), field trips to art galleries and 
museums (5 percent), and trips to arts 
performances (5 percent). 



Administrative Support for Arts Education in 
Public Secondary Schools 

Results of the secondary school survey show that 
64 percent of schools included the arts in their 
mission statements, yearly goals, or school 
improvement plans (table 3 1). 17 Schools in the 
Northeast were more likely to report that their 
mission statement included the arts than were 
schools in other regions of the country (79 percent 
versus 58 to 63 percent). About half of public 
secondary schools (49 percent) had undertaken a 
school reform initiative related to arts education or 
the integration of the arts with other academic 



17 A11 respondents to the secondary school survey answered these 
questions, whether or not they reported offering specific instruction 
in any of the arts areas. Of the 686 secondary schools surveyed, 6 
(or 2 percent) did not offer any instruction in music, visual arts, 
dance, or drama/theatre. 



subjects. Again, schools in the Northeast were 
more likely to report involvement in some arts 
education reform than were schools in other 
regions of the country (72 percent versus 38 to 
50 percent). 

Status of Arts Specialists and Programs in 
Public Secondary Schools 

Arts teachers in public secondary schools were 
generally included in selected management aspects 
of their schools. In 1999-2000, 87 percent of 
secondary school principals indicated that arts 
teachers were included on site-based management 
or school improvement teams, and/or leadership 
councils (table 32). Most secondary schools 
(91 percent) reported that arts teachers had input 
into the arts curriculum, and 76 percent reported 
that they had input into the allocation of arts funds. 
Fifty percent of secondary schools indicated that 
arts teachers had input in the hiring of new arts 
staff. Schools in the Southeast were less likely to 
report input from arts specialists in this area when 
compared with schools in other geographic regions 
(3 1 percent versus 5 1 to 62 percent). 

Most public secondary schools (96 percent) 
reported that arts teachers received the same kind 
of performance evaluation as teachers in other 
instructional programs at their schools (table 33). 
In addition, 91 percent of principals reported that 
they evaluated the arts program in the same 
manner that they evaluate other instructional 
programs. Twenty-three percent of public 
secondary schools conducted standardized or 



57 



district-wide assessments of student performance 
and achievement in the arts. 

District curriculum coordinators. Fifty-three 
percent of public secondary schools had a 
coordinator at the district level who was 
responsible for the arts programs in their schools. 



Small schools were less likely to have a district 
coordinator than moderate-size or large schools 
(39 percent versus 53 and 68 percent, respec- 
tively). Further, schools in cities were more likely 
than schools in the urban fringe, towns, and rural 
schools to have a district coordinator (74 percent 
versus 37 to 59 percent). 



Table 31. — Percent of public secondary schools in which arts education was included in the mission 
statement or school improvement plan, or that were engaged in some reform initiative 
involving the arts, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Arts education included 

in mission statement 

or school improvement plan 



School reform initiative related to 

arts education or the integration of 

the arts with other academic 

subjects 



All public secondary schools 64 49 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 64 49 

400 to 999 63 49 

1,000 or more 67 50 

Locale 

City ". 73 52 

Urban fringe 67 50 

Town 58 47 

Rural 57 47 

Region 

Northeast 79 72 

Southeast 58 47 

Central 63 50 

West 60 38 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 62 49 

6 to 20 percent 63 47 

21 to 50 percent 67 52 

More than 50 percent 64 49 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 64 51 

35 to 49 percent 62 44 

50 to 74 percent 65 50 

75 percent or more 61 46 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



58 



Table 32. — Percent of public secondary schools indicating that arts specialists have input in selected 
management issues related to arts instruction, by school characteristics: Academic year 
1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Site-based 
management/ 

school 

improvement 

teams; leadership 

councils 



Arts curriculum 
offered 



Allocation of 
arts funds 



Hiring of 
arts staff 



All public secondary schools 87 91 76 50 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 81 89 71 35 

400 to 999 89 92 78 52 

1,000 or more 90 91 80 64 

Locale 

City 91 88 75 55 

Urban fringe 88 92 79 58 

Town 89 93 82 50 

Rural 82 91 73 37 

Region 

Northeast 87 92 76 62 

Southeast 83 81 67 31 

Central 89 97 80 51 

West 87 92 80 54 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 84 93 75 46 

6 to 20 percent 93 96 84 62 

21 to 50 percent 89 91 79 46 

More than 50 percent 81 82 68 44 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 percent 88 94 80 58 

35 to 49 percent 84 93 73 39 

50 to 74 percent 90 86 76 38 

75 percent or more 74 80 59 39 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



59 



Table 33. — Percent of public secondary schools indicating various ways that arts programs and 

instruction are assessed, and the presence of a district-level arts coordinator, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Principal evaluates 

arts teachers in the 

same way other 

teachers are 

evaluated 



Principal evaluates 
the arts program in 

the same way 

other programs are 

evaluated 



School conducts 
standardized 
assessment of 

student 

achievement 

in the arts 



Specialist or 
coordinator at the 
district level who 
is responsible for 
the arts programs 
offered 



All public secondary schools 96 91 23 53 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 92 88 21 39 

400 to 999 97 93 24 53 

1,000 or more 98 93 25 68 

Locale 

City 99 95 21 74 

Urban fringe 97 94 23 59 

Town 95 91 26 41 

Rural 92 86 23 37 

Region 

Northeast 96 93 25 63 

Southeast 94 88 21 55 

Central 95 94 23 49 

West 96 89 23 49 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 95 90 21 45 

6 to 20 percent 97 93 20 52 

21 to 50 percent 99 90 31 60 

More than 50 percent 92 91 24 59 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 percent 96 92 21 53 

35 to 49 percent 99 93 23 49 

50 to 74 percent 97 93 27 50 

75 percent or more 86 82 25 62 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



Perceived status of arts education among 
administrators, teachers, and parents. The 

secondary school survey also asked school 
principals their perceptions of the extent to which 
the administrators, non-arts teachers, and parents 
at their schools considered the arts an essential 

1 R 

part of a high-quality education. This set of 
questions was asked of principals at all secondary 
schools, not just those with established arts 
programs. Response choices included "not at all," 
"to a small extent," "to a moderate extent," "to a 



great extent," and "cannot judge." Seventy- 
two percent of principals believed that their school 
administrators (presumably including themselves) 
considered the arts essential to a great extent, and 
20 percent felt that the arts were essential to 
administrators to a moderate extent (table 34). 
Less than half of the survey respondents indicated 
that they felt non-arts teaching staff and parents 
considered the arts essential to a great extent 
(40 percent and 41 percent, respectively). Parents 
of students in large schools were more likely than 



18 It should be kept in mind that asking respondents about the beliefs 
of others is subject to a certain degree of subjectivity, and thus the 
results represent the perspective of school principals, but do not 
necessarily reflect the actual views of (other) administrators, 
teachers, and parents. 



60 



parents of students in small schools to be viewed 
as considering arts instruction as essential to a 
great extent (49 percent versus 36 percent). Also, 
more principals from schools with the lowest 
poverty concentration reported the belief that 



parents of students in their schools viewed the arts 
as essential to a great extent than principals in 
schools with the two highest concentrations of 
poverty (5 1 percent versus 3 1 and 24 percent). 



Table 34. — Percent of public secondary school principals indicating the extent to which they believe 
individuals at the school and parents consider the arts an essential part of a high- 
quality education, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 





Administrators 


Non-arts teaching staff 


Parents 


School characteristic 


Great 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 


Great 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 


Great 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 



All public secondary schools 72 20 40 47 41 42 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 73 19 38 46 36 48 

400 to 999 73 19 39 50 41 41 

1,000 ormore 71 22 44 45 49 37 

Locale 

City 76 17 40 49 41 41 

Urban fringe 67 23 39 45 47 36 

Town 74 19 42 51 48 39 

Rural 73 19 40 47 31 50 

Region 

Northeast , 72 19 41 47 48 39 

Southeast 73 20 40 46 34 41 

Central 80 13 41 46 41 45 

West 64 27 38 49 42 41 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 73 15 41 44 37 46 

6 to 20 percent 74 20 39 53 49 39 

21 to 50 percent 70 23 37 45 41 40 

More than 50 percent 70 24 39 49 36 43 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 percent 71 19 43 44 51 35 

35 to 49 percent 78 15 40 56 35 47 

50 to 74 percent 72 23 42 45 31 51 

75 percent or more 64 32 29 54 24 52 

NOTE: Other response categories included "not at all," "small extent," and "cannot judge." Results for these responses are not presented. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



61 



62 



4. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS 
OF MUSIC AND VISUAL ARTS 



Highlights 

• In 1999-2000, 45 percent of music specialists and 39 percent of visual arts specialists had a master's 
degree in their respective fields of study or in a related arts field. Forty-five percent of regular 
classroom teachers had a master's degree. 

• Arts specialists participated in a variety of professional development activities. For instance, 
72 percent of music specialists and 79 percent of visual arts specialists reported professional 
development activities focusing on the integration of music or visual arts into other subject areas 
within the last 12 months. 

• A sizable majority of music and visual arts specialists felt that their participation in various 
professional development activities focusing on arts instruction improved their teaching skills to a 
moderate or great extent (69 to 75 percent). 

• On a typical school day in 1999-2000, music specialists taught an average of six different classes of 
students. Visual arts specialists taught on average five classes on a typical school day. 

• Visual arts specialists had more time set aside each week for planning or preparation during the 
regular school day than music specialists and classroom teachers (4.2 hours versus 3.6 and 3.4, 
respectively). 

• Forty-six percent of music specialists and 44 percent of visual arts specialists strongly agreed with 
the statement that parents support them in their efforts to educate their children. Fifty-eight percent 
of music specialists and 53 percent of visual arts specialists strongly agreed that they were supported 
by the administration at their schools. 



Music and Visual Arts Specialists 
and Self-Contained Classroom 
Teachers 

This chapter presents information about instructors 
of music and visual arts in public elementary 
schools in 1999-2000. It includes findings from 
the survey of elementary school music specialists, 
the survey of elementary school visual arts 
specialists, and the arts survey of elementary 
school classroom teachers. Self-contained 

classroom teachers were included in the survey for 
two reasons: (1) to compare the qualifications and 
teaching responsibilities of arts teachers to those 



of non-arts teachers; 19 and (2) to determine the 
extent to which classroom teachers were 
incorporating the arts into their instructional 
programs and participating in professional 
development relevant to arts instruction 
(regardless of whether there was an arts specialist 
on staff). Separate surveys of dance and 
drama/theatre specialists were not included in the 



l9 A question may be raised regarding the comparability of data 
collected on self-contained classroom teachers and music and visual 
arts specialists, given the possibility that the elementary grades 
taught by these groups might not be equivalent. Specifically, there 
might be concern that classroom teachers (in self-contained 
classrooms) might not generally teach beyond grade 3, whereas arts 
specialists might teach all elementary grades. Analysis of the data 
shows that this is not the case — regular classroom teachers were 
distributed across all grades available in the elementary schools 
within the sample. For example, in elementary schools where 
kindergarten through grade 6 were available, 40 percent of teachers 
in self-contained classrooms taught kindergarten or grades 1 or 2, 
32 percent taught grades 3 or 4, and 29 percent taught grades 5 or 6. 



63 



study, since the percentage of schools with either 
of these specialists on staff was quite small. 
According to the elementary school survey (see 
chapter 2), 8 percent of all schools had a full- or 
part-time dance specialist on staff, and 5 percent 
had a full- or part-time drama/theatre specialist on 
staff. 

The chapter includes findings related to the 
preparation, working environments, and 
instructional practices of public elementary school 
music and visual arts specialists and non-arts 
classroom teachers. 20 Specifically, teachers were 
asked about their educational background and 
teaching experience and the professional 
development activities in which they had 
participated in the last 12 months. They were 
asked about their teaching load, the amount of 
planning time their schedules permit, and the kinds 
of collaboration with other teachers that take place 
at their schools. Arts specialists were asked to 
report on the adequacy of the arts facilities, 
equipment, and other resources available to them 
at their schools. All teachers were also asked to 
report their perceptions of the support that arts 
instruction receives from parents and other staff at 



their schools. With respect to teaching practices, 
arts specialists were asked about the curriculum 
guidelines available at their schools, their goals 
and objectives for student learning, the assessment 
strategies they use, and their own involvement in 
the arts outside of school. Classroom teachers 
were asked about the extent to which they 
incorporate various arts subjects into their own 
instructional programs. 



Characteristics of Public Elementary 
School Arts Specialists and 
Classroom Teachers 

In 1999-2000, an estimated 70,700 music 
specialists taught elementary school students in 
U.S. public schools (table 35). Of these, 
89 percent taught music full time, and 1 1 percent 
taught part time. An estimated 37,800 visual arts 
specialists taught in elementary schools, of which 
80 percent were full time and 20 percent were part 
time. An estimated 903,200 teachers taught full 
time in self-contained, regular elementary school 
classrooms. 



Table 35. — Number and percent of music specialists, visual arts specialists, and classroom 

teachers in public elementary schools, by teaching status: Academic year 1999-2000 



Type of teacher and status 



National estimate 



Number 



Percent 



Music specialists 70,700 100 

Full time 63,100 89 

Parttime 7,600 11 

Visual arts specialists 37,800 100 

Full time 30,200 80 

Part time 7,600 20 

Full time classroom teachers 903,200 100 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 

School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



20 While findings from the school-level surveys were presented in 
terms of national estimates as well as by selected school 
characteristics, this chapter focuses on national estimates only. The 
survey samples of arts specialists and classroom teachers were 
relatively small (453 music specialists, 331 visual arts specialists, 
and 497 regular classroom teachers). Thus, small cell sizes and the 
resulting high standard errors might not support comparisons across 
subgroups of selected independent variables. 



64 



Thirty-two percent of elementary school music 
specialists had 20 or more years of teaching 
experience in-field (i.e., in music), 34 percent had 
10 to 19 years, 20 percent had 4 to 9 years, and 
14 percent had 3 or fewer years of music teaching 
experience. Twenty-four percent of elementary 
school visual arts specialists had 20 or more years 
of teaching experience in-field (i.e., in visual arts), 
31 percent had 10 to 19 years, 25 percent had 4 to 
9 years, and 20 percent had 3 or fewer years of 
visual arts teaching experience (table 36). 



As an indicator of the stage at which teachers 
perceive themselves to be in their careers, teachers 
were asked to report the approximate number of 
years they intended to continue teaching. Overall, 
arts specialists and classroom teachers alike were 
fairly evenly distributed in their estimations. 
Between 34 and 39 percent of teachers estimated 
that they would teach 1 to 9 years more, 35 to 
39 percent estimated between 10 and 19 years, and 
26 to 28 percent estimated 20 years or more 
(table 37). 



Table 36. — Percentage distribution of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts 
specialists, and classroom teachers indicating their number of years of teaching 
experience, both overall and in-field: Academic year 1999-2000 





Years of teaching experience 


Type of teacher 


3 or fewer 
years 


4 to 9 
years 


10 to 19 
years 


20 or more 
years 



Music specialists 

Years of teaching experience overall 13 19 33 35 

Years of teaching in-field 14 20 34 32 

Visual arts specialists 

Years of teaching experience overall 15 22 32 31 

Years of teaching in-field 20 25 31 24 

Classroom teachers 

Years of teaching experience overall 15 21 28 35 

Years of teaching in-field ( — ) ( — ) ( — ) ( — ) 

— Not available; statistic not collected for the classroom teacher survey. 

NOTE: Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



Table 37. — Percentage distribution of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts 

specialists, and classroom teachers indicating the number of years they plan to continue 
teaching: Academic year 1999-2000 



Type of teacher 



1 to 9 years 



1 to 19 years 



20 or more years 



Music specialists 34 39 27 

Visual arts specialists 35 38 28 

Classroom teachers 39 35 26 

NOTE: Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 

School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



65 



Teacher Background and Professional 
Development 

Data from the teacher surveys also provide 
information about the educational backgrounds 
and professional development activities of arts 
specialists and regular classroom teachers. Music 
specialists, visual arts specialists, and classroom 
teachers were asked questions about the highest 
level of education they attained, which subjects 
they majored in, and whether or not they received 
teacher certification in their subject area. They 
were also asked about their participation in a wide 
range of professional development activities, as 
well as the extent to which they believed those 
activities helped to improve their teaching. 



Teacher Education 

The type of degree earned by a teacher is one 
measure used to assess teacher qualifications. 
While having a bachelor's degree was once 
considered adequate qualification for teachers, 
today's teachers often are expected to have 
advanced degrees (Lewis et al. 1999). At the time 
of this survey, virtually all elementary school arts 
specialists and regular classroom teachers had a 
bachelor's degree (table 38). In addition, 
45 percent of music specialists and 39 percent of 
visual arts specialists had a master's degree in 
their respective fields of study or in a related field. 
Forty-three percent of regular classroom teachers 
had a master's degree. 



Table 38. — Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers, by degrees held: Academic year 1999-2000 



Type of teacher 



Bachelor's 
degree 



Master's 
degree 



Doctor's 
degree 



Other 
degree 



Music specialists 100* 45 1 2 

Visual arts specialists 100* 39 5 

Classroom teachers 100* 43 (#) 3 

#Estimate less than 0.5 percent. 

*Rounds to 100 percent for presentation in the table. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 




66 



Overall, 92 percent of music specialists had a 
bachelor's or master's degree in-field (i.e., in 
music education or music), and 88 percent of 
visual arts specialists had a bachelor's or master's 
degree in-field (i.e., in arts education or applied or 
fine arts). Among elementary school music 
specialists, 68 percent completed undergraduate 
majors in music education, and 29 percent 
completed majors in music, either performance, 
history, or theory (table 39). 21 Five percent of 
music specialists completed undergraduate majors 
in elementary education, and 7 percent completed 
majors in other fields. Of the 45 percent of music 
specialists with a master's degree, 41 percent had 
a degree in music education, 26 percent had a 
degree in some form of music study (performance, 
history, or theory), 4 percent had a degree in 



elementary education, and 34 percent had degrees 
in other fields. 

Forty-four percent of elementary school visual arts 
specialists completed undergraduate majors in 
general/visual arts education, and 45 percent 
completed majors in applied art, identified as fine 
arts, studio arts, or visual arts. Ten percent of 
visual arts specialists reported completing 
undergraduate majors in elementary education, 
and 9 percent completed majors in other fields. Of 
the 39 percent of visual arts teachers with a 
master's degree, 34 percent had a degree in arts 
education, 28 percent had a degree in applied or 
fine arts, 7 percent had a degree in elementary 
education, and 38 percent had degrees in other 
fields. 



Table 39. — Percent of public elementary school music and visual arts specialists with a degree in- 
field and who majored in various fields of study for a bachelor's or master's degree: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



Degree and field of study 



Music specialists 



Visual arts specialists 



Bachelor's or master's degree in-field 92 88 

Bachelor's degree 

Music education 68 (#) 

Music 29 (#) 

Arts education (#) 44 

Applied or fine arts (#) 45 

Elementary education 5 10 

Other 7 9 

Master's degree* 

Music education 41 (#) 

Music 26 (#) 

Arts education (#) 34 

Applied or fine arts (#) 28 

Elementary education 4 7 

Other 34 38 

#Estimate less than 0.5 percent. 

♦Percentages are based on the 45 percent of music specialists and 39 percent of visual arts specialists who reported having a master's degree. 

NOTE: Specialists could have named up to three majors for a bachelor's and master's degree. Percentages do not sum to 100 percent because 
some specialists reported more than one major for their bachelor's or master's degree. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary School 
Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



21 Specialists could have named up to three majors for a bachelor's and 
master's degree. 



67 



Classroom teachers were asked whether they had 
an arts major or minor for their bachelor's degree 
or master's degree (if applicable). 22 Nine percent 
of classroom teachers had an arts major or minor 
for their bachelor's degree, and 2 percent of those 
with a master's degree had an arts major or minor 
(not shown in tables). Overall, 10 percent of 
classroom teachers had an arts major or minor for 
a bachelor's and/or master's degree (not shown in 
tables). 



Teacher Certification 

Teachers' certification status is another measure of 
teachers' qualifications. Over and above the 
coursework required for a degree, teacher 
certification includes clinical experiences such as 
student teaching and often some type of formal 
assessment. All three types of teachers surveyed 
in this study were asked to indicate which of three 
types of certificates they held: (1) a regular, 
standard, or professional certificate; (2) a 
probationary certificate; or (3) a provisional, 
temporary, or emergency certificate. Arts 



specialists were also asked to specify their 
certification status in both general elementary 
education and in their major fields of study (i.e., 
music education or visual arts education). They 
could specify more than one type of certification. 

Almost all music specialists (91 percent) were 
certified to teach music, and 90 percent of the 
teachers that were certified to teach music had 
regular, standard, or professional certification 
(table 40). Twenty-one percent of music 

specialists indicated that they had a general 
elementary education certificate. Similarly, 
89 percent of visual arts specialists were certified 
to teach art, of which 89 percent indicated that 
they had a regular, standard, or professional 
certification. Twenty-nine percent of visual arts 
specialists had a general elementary education 
certificate. One hundred percent of regular 
classroom teachers had a general elementary 
education certificate, of which 93 percent held a 
regular, standard, or professional certificate. 
Classroom teachers were not asked whether they 
were certified to teach an arts subject. 



Table 40. — Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 

classroom teachers, by the types of teaching certificates held: Academic year 1999- 
2000 



Type of teacher 



General elementary 
education certificate 



Arts education 
certificate 



Neither 



Music specialists 21 91 2 9 

Visual arts specialists 29 89 3 8 

Classroom teachers 4 100' (— ) ( — ) 

— Not available; statistic not collected for the classroom teacher survey. 

'Rounds to 100 percent for presentation in the table. 

2 Of the 91 percent of music specialists with an arts education certificate (in music), 90 percent reported regular, standard, or professional 
certification. 

3 Of the 89 percent of visual arts specialists with an arts education certificate (in visual arts), 89 percent reported regular, standard, or professional 
certification. 

4 Classroom teachers were asked if they had a general elementary or secondary teaching certificate in their state. Of the 100 percent of classroom 
teachers with a general elementary or secondary teaching certificate in their state, 93 percent reported regular, standard, or professional 
certification. 

NOTE: Respondents could select more than one type of certificate. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



22 The data requesters were interested in determining whether self- 
contained classroom teachers had any kind of educational 






background in the arts. 



68 



Professional Development 

To meet the changing demands of their profession, 
both new and more experienced teachers must 
continuously update their knowledge and skills 
through formal professional development. Some 
school districts require teachers to participate in 
professional development, and certain states have 
passed initiatives encouraging or mandating 
professional development if teachers are to retain 
their certification (Lewis et al. 1999). The three 
teacher surveys asked about participation in 
various kinds of professional development 
activities, designed both for music and visual arts 
specialists in particular, and for all teachers in 
general. Further, in order to gauge their views on 
how beneficial these activities were, specialists 
and regular classroom teachers were asked to rate 
the extent to which they felt their teaching had 



improved as a result of participation in these 
activities. 

Content of professional development. Arts 
specialists and regular classroom teachers were 
asked to report on the professional development 
activities in which they had participated in the last 
12 months that focused both on enhancement of 
arts instruction (e.g., applied study in an arts area 
or connecting arts learning with other subject 
areas) and on aspects of teaching relevant to all 
teachers (e.g., new methods of teaching or student 
performance assessment). Music specialists (49 to 
72 percent) and visual arts specialists (56 to 
79 percent) were more likely to have participated 
in arts-related professional development in the last 
12 months than were regular classroom teachers 
(25 to 46 percent) (figure 22). On the other hand, 



Figure 22. — Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 

classroom teachers who participated in various professional development activities 
focusing on arts instruction in the last 12 months: Academic year 1999-2000 



■ Music specialists 
□ Visual arts specialists 
H Classroom teachers 




Applied study in 
an arts area* 



Developing knowledge 
about an arts subject area 



Connecting arts learning 
with other subject areas 



*For music specialists, this refers to applied study in performing music. Music specialists were also asked about applied study in improvising, 
arranging, or composing music, in which 31 percent had participated. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



69 



classroom teachers (84 to 90 percent) were more 
likely than music specialists (65 to 78 percent) and 
visual arts specialists (64 to 81 percent) to have 
participated in professional development designed 
for all teachers (figure 23). It should be noted that 
at least two-thirds of arts specialists participated in 
general teacher professional development 
activities, compared to 25 to 46 percent of 
classroom teachers who participated in activities 
related to arts education. 

Seventy-two percent of music specialists, 
79 percent of visual arts specialists, and 46 percent 
of regular classroom teachers participated in 
professional development activities focusing on 



the integration of music or visual arts into other 
subject areas within the last 12 months (figure 22). 
Visual arts specialists were more likely than music 
specialists to participate in activities designed to 
develop knowledge about the historical, cultural, 
or analytical aspects of their subject area 
(72 percent versus 60 percent). Twenty- 

five percent of classroom teachers participated in 
this type of professional development. Fifty- 
six percent of visual arts specialists, 49 percent of 
music specialists, and 27 percent of classroom 
teachers participated in activities involving applied 
study of the production or performance aspects of 
their subject area. 



Figure 23. — Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 

classroom teachers who participated in various professional development activities 
designed for all teachers in the last 12 months: Academic year 1999-2000 




■ Music specialists 

□ Visual arts specialists 

■ Classroom teachers 



90 



78 



81 



87 



84 



69 69 



65 64 



New methods of 
teaching 



Incorporating state 

or district standards 

into instruction 



Student performance Integrating education 
assessment technologies into 

instruction in taught 
subject area 



SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



70 



As for professional development activities 
designed for all teachers, 86 percent of regular 
classroom teachers participated in professional 
development activities involving new methods of 
teaching, compared with 68 percent of music 
specialists and 70 percent of visual arts specialists 
(figure 23). Similarly, 84 percent of classroom 
teachers participated in professional development 
involving integrating educational technologies into 
instruction in their subject area, compared with 
65 percent of music specialists and 64 percent of 
visual arts specialists. Classroom teachers were 
also more likely than music and visual arts 
specialists to have participated in activities that 
focused on incorporating state or district standards 
into instruction (90 percent of classroom teachers 
versus 78 percent of music specialists and 
81 percent of visual arts specialists) and student 



performance assessment (87 percent of classroom 
teachers versus 69 percent of both music and 
visual arts specialists). 

In general, participation in particular professional 
development activities within the last 12 months 
for most music and visual arts specialists and 
regular classroom teachers lasted from 1 to 8 
hours, or the equivalent of 1 day or less of training 
(table 41). Specifically, of those who participated, 
music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers were more likely to have spent 
1 to 8 hours, rather than more than 8 hours, in 
professional development activities involving 
connecting arts learning with other subject areas, 
new methods of teaching, student performance 
assessment, and integrating education technologies 
into instruction. 



Table 41. — Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers indicating the number of hours spent in various professional 
development activities in the last 12 months, by content area: Academic year 1999- 
2000 





Music specialists 


Visual arts specialists 


Classroom teachers 


Content area 


1 to 8 


More 
than 8 


1 to 8 


More 
than 8 


1 to 8 


More 
than 8 



Activities focusing on arts instruction 

Applied study in an arts area* 47 53 47 53 84 16 

Developing knowledge of the historical, cultural, 

or analytical aspects of an arts area 69 31 54 46 82 18 

Connecting arts learning with other subject areas .... 64 36 57 43 73 27 

Activities designed for all teachers 

New methods of teaching 65 35 71 29 56 44 

Incorporating state or district standards into 

instruction 63 37 53 47 49 51 

Student performance assessment 72 28 69 31 64 36 

Integrating education technologies into 

instruction 73 27 68 32 60 40 

♦For music specialists, this refers to applied study in performing music. Music specialists were also asked about applied study in improvising, 
arranging, or composing music, in which 66 percent participated for 1 to 8 hours and 34 percent participated for more than 8 hours. 

NOTE: Percentages are based on those teachers who participated in professional development activities in a particular content area. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Surveys of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



71 



Perceived impact of professional development. 

Since the rationale behind professional 
development programs is to provide an 
opportunity for teachers to upgrade their 
knowledge, skills, and practices, it is useful to 
explore the extent to which teachers believed their 
participation in these activities helped them to 
achieve these objectives. The surveys asked 
teachers to assess the extent to which they 
believed their participation in these activities 
improved their teaching. Response categories 



ranged from "not at all" to "a great extent." 
Overall results showed, for each activity focusing 
on arts instruction, that 69 to 75 percent of music 
and visual arts specialists who participated in 
professional development thought that the 
activities improved their teaching skills to a 
moderate or great extent (figure 24). Fewer 
regular classroom teachers (between 51 and 
57 percent) evaluated their participation in arts- 
related professional development activities in this 
way. 



Figure 24. — Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 

classroom teachers who participated in professional development activities focusing on 
arts instruction in the last 12 months and indicated that the activity improved their 
teaching to a moderate or great extent: Academic year 1999-2000 



■ Music specialists 

□ Visual arts specialists 

□ Classroom teachers 




Applied study 
in an arts area' 



Developing knowledge 
about an arts subject area 



Connecting arts learning with 
other subject areas 



*For music specialists, this refers to applied study in performing music. Music specialists were also asked about applied study in improvising, 
arranging, or composing music, in which 31 percent had participated. Of those, 64 percent indicated improvement in their teaching to a moderate 
or great extent. 

NOTE: Percentages are based on those who participated in professional development activities in a particular content area. 
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



72 



With respect to professional development 
activities designed for all teachers, 50 to 
61 percent of music and visual arts specialists who 
participated reported that these activities had 
improved their teaching to a moderate or great 
extent (figure 25). Classroom teachers were more 
likely than music and visual arts specialists to 
report that new methods of teaching (77 percent 
versus 58 and 58 percent), incorporating state or 
district standards into instruction (70 percent 
versus 54 and 55 percent), and student 
performance assessment (67 percent versus 50 and 
55 percent) improved their teaching to a moderate 
or great extent. 



Work Environment 

A supportive work environment includes features 
such as reasonable teaching load, adequate time 
for planning and preparation, adequate facilities, 
equipment, and materials, and the opportunity to 
interact and exchange ideas with other teachers. 
In addition, the perceptions teachers have of parent 
and staff support may have an impact on their 
approach to their jobs, and is therefore an 
important feature of the environment in which 
they work. Arts specialists and regular classroom 
teachers were asked about these features of their 
work environments. 



Figure 25. — Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 

classroom teachers who participated in professional development activities designed 
for all teachers in the last 12 months and indicating that the activity improved their 
teaching to a moderate or great extent: Academic year 1999-2000 



■ Music specialists 

□ Visual arts specialists 

■ Classroom teachers 




New methods of 
teaching 



Incorporating state 

or district standards 

into instruction 



Student performance Integrating education 
assessment technologies into 

instruction in taught 
subject area 



NOTE: Percentages are based on those who participated in professional development activities in a particular content area. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Surveys of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



73 



Teaching Load and Time for Planning and 
Preparation 

In 1999-2000, 44 percent of music specialists and 
5 1 percent of visual arts specialists reported that 
they taught at only one school (table 42). 
Thirty percent of music specialists and 33 percent 
of visual arts specialists taught at two schools, and 
12 percent of music specialists and 10 percent of 
visual arts specialists taught at three schools. 
Fifteen percent of music specialists and 6 percent 
of visual arts specialists taught at four or more 
schools. 

On a typical school day in 1999-2000, music 
specialists taught on average six different classes 



of students, and visual arts specialists taught five 
classes (table 43). During a typical school week, 
music specialists taught an average of 24 different 
classes of students across all schools, and visual 
arts specialists taught an average of 22 different 
classes. Music and visual arts specialists were 
asked to report the total number of students that 
they taught at the time of the survey, counting all 
students across all schools if they taught at more 
than one school. Music specialists taught an 
average of 450 students per week at the time of the 
survey, and visual arts specialists taught an 
average of 555 students per week. 



Table 42. — Percentage distribution of public elementary school music and visual arts specialists, by 
the number of schools at which they teach: Academic year 1999-2000 



Type of teacher 



1 school 



2 schools 



3 schools 



4 schools or 
more 



Music specialists 

Visual arts specialists . 



44 
51 



30 

33 



12 
10 



15 
6 



NOTE: Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



Table 43. — Means for various indicators of teaching load for public elementary school music and 
visual arts specialists: Academic year 1999-2000 



Indicator of teaching load 



Music specialists 



Visual arts specialists 



Mean number of classes taught in a typical school day* g 5 

Mean number of classes taught in a typical school week, across all schools 24 22 

Mean number of students taught in total, across all schools 459 555 

♦Refers to a day at the school named on the cover of the questionnaire. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



74 



Finally, the amount of time during the school day 
that teachers have set aside for planning and 
preparation can make a difference in teaching 
load. There were some differences in the amount 
of time arts specialists and classroom teachers had 
for this purpose. During a typical school week in 
1999-2000, visual arts specialists had an average 
of 4.2 hours each week designated for planning 
and preparation during regular school hours (i.e., 
when students were in attendance) (figure 26). 
Music specialists and classroom teachers had 
slightly less time designated for these purposes 
(3.6 and 3.4 hours, respectively). 



Views of Arts Specialists on Facilities, 
Equipment, and Other Resources 

Designated rooms, proper equipment, a wide range 
of supplies and materials, and state-of-the-art 
technologies may facilitate arts specialists' 
abilities to present students with a wide range of 
tools with which they can explore the arts. In 
addition, teachers may benefit from adequate 
instructional time with students as well as 
adequate time to prepare for their classes. The 
surveys asked elementary school music and visual 
arts specialists to rate the adequacy of a variety of 
supports for teaching music or visual arts. 
Response options ranged from "not at all 
adequate" to "completely adequate." 



Figure 26. — Mean number of hours teachers have designated as planning or preparation time when 
students are in attendance during a typical school week, by type of teacher: Academic 
year 1999-2000 



Hours 

10-, 



8- 



6- 



4.2 



3.6 





3.4 




Music specialists 



Visual arts specialists 



Classroom teachers 



SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Surveys of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



75 



Views of music specialists. Forty-three percent of 
music specialists rated their elementary schools' 
classroom equipment as completely adequate, and 
35 percent rated their schools' dedicated room or 
space as completely adequate (table 44). On the 
other hand, 5 1 percent of music specialists rated 
their schools' electronic technological support as 
not at all adequate. In addition, 23 percent of 
music specialists rated the time they had available 
for individual or collaborative planning as not at 
all adequate, and 38 percent rated it as minimally 
adequate. 

Views of visual arts specialists. Forty percent of 
visual arts specialists reported that the dedicated 
room or space for visual arts instruction that their 



schools provided was completely adequate. Many 
visual arts specialists in public elementary schools 
rated the art materials — expendable resources such 
as paint, ink, clay, and paper — at their schools as 
completely adequate (36 percent). Many also 
rated the art tools, such as brushes, brayers, and 
clay tools, as completely adequate (36 percent). 
On the other hand, visual arts specialists indicated 
that the electronic technologies used in the study 
and creation of art were either not at all adequate 
(30 percent) or minimally adequate (37 percent). 
Twenty- four percent rated the time they had 
available for individual or collaborative planning 
as not at all adequate, and 36 percent rated it as 
minimally adequate. 



Table 44. — Percentage distribution of public elementary school music and visual arts specialists 

indicating how adequate are various aspects of their schools' arts programs in support 
of their instruction: Academic year 1999-2000 



Type of support 



Not at all 
adequate 



Minimally 
adequate 



Moderately 
adequate 



Completely 
adequate 



Music specialists 

Facilities (dedicated room or space for music instruction) 15 21 29 35 

Instructional resources (materials and supplies for music instruction, 

such as sheet music, tapes, and CDs) 6 31 37 26 

Classroom instruments (instruments typically used by students in the 

general music classroom) 10 26 42 22 

Orchestra or band instruments (instruments available for students 

wishing to participate in the school string/orchestra or band 

program) 13 36 . 37 13 

Classroom equipment (equipment typically used in the general music 

classroom, such as a piano or a stereo system) 4 17 37 43 

Technologies (electronic equipment used in the study and creation of 

music, such as computer, MDI keyboards, and sequencers) 51 26 15 7 

Instructional time with students 3 31 48 19 

Time for individual or collaborative planning 23 38 29 10 

Visual arts specialists 

Facilities (dedicated room or space for visual arts instruction) 15 16 28 40 

Instructional resources (reusable resources used for instruction in 

visual arts, such as art prints, slides, and videotapes) 11 28 36 24 

Art materials (expendable resources such as paint, ink, clay, and 

paper) 1 17 46 36 

Art tools (equipment used to create and learn about visual arts, such as 

brushes, scissors, brayers, and clay tools) 19 44 36 

Classroom equipment (equipment used to create and learn about visual 

arts, such as cameras, kilns, and easels) 16 30 34 21 

Technologies (electronic equipment used in the study and creation of 

art, such as computers, scanners, and video equipment) 30 37 20 13 

Instructional time with students 3 27 41 28 

Time for individual or collaborative planning 24 36 28 13 

NOTE: Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



76 



Status and Integration of Arts Education 
into Overall School Programs 

Some advocates of arts education contend that the 
strength of arts education in the nation's schools 
may be contingent upon the integration of the arts 
into other academic subject areas (Wilson 1997). 
Music and visual arts specialists were asked about 
the extent of their participation in a variety of 
activities involving collaboration among teachers 
and the integration of arts instruction into the 
broader curriculum. 

Findings show that music and visual arts 
specialists were able to collaborate to some extent 
with regular classroom teachers on arts instruction 
issues. For instance, 49 percent of music 
specialists and 45 percent of visual arts specialists 



indicated that they consulted a few times a year 
with classroom teachers about integrating their 
subjects into a lesson or unit of study (table 45). 
However, visual arts specialists were more likely 
than music specialists to engage in this activity at 
least once a month (33 percent versus 17 percent). 
Similarly, visual arts specialists were more likely 
than music specialists to collaborate with other 
teachers at least once a month in designing and 
teaching an interdisciplinary lesson that included 
their subject (24 percent versus 10 percent). 
About half or more of both music and visual arts 
specialists never had a common planning period 
with other arts specialists (55 percent and 
59 percent, respectively) or visited classrooms of 
colleagues who teach arts subjects (63 percent and 
65 percent, respectively). 



Table 45. — Percentage distribution of public elementary school music and visual arts specialists 
reporting frequency of participation in various collaborative activities related to arts 
instruction within the last 12 months: Academic year 1999-2000 





Music specialists 


Visual arts specialists 


Arts-specific collaborative activity 


Never 


A few 

times a 

year 


At least 
once a 
month 


Never 


A few 
times a 

year 


At least 
once a 
month 



Common planning period with other arts specialists at the 

school 55 27 18 59 23 19 

Consulting with classroom teachers about integrating arts 

subject taught into a lesson or unit of study that they 

teach 34 49 17 22 45 33 

Collaborating with other teachers on designing and 

teaching an interdisciplinary lesson or unit of study that 

includes taught subject 48 43 10 29 48 24 

Visiting classrooms of colleagues who teach the same 

subject 63 32 5 65 28 8_ 

NOTE: Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



77 



With respect to collaborative activities that are not 
arts-specific, arts specialists were as likely as 
regular classroom teachers to share ideas about 
teaching with teachers outside their assigned 
school(s) at least once a month (34 and 30 percent 
for music and visual arts specialists, respectively, 
versus 35 percent for classroom teachers) 
(table 46). However, they were less likely than 
classroom teachers to have a common planning 
period with (other) regular classroom teachers at 



least once a month (7 and 10 percent for music and 
visual arts specialists, respectively, versus 
68 percent for classroom teachers). Further, 
classroom teachers were more likely than music 
and visual arts specialists to have participated at 
least once a month in site-based management or 
school improvement teams (40 percent versus 1 8 
and 23 percent) and in the preparation of 
individual educational plans for students with 
special needs (27 percent versus 5 and 9 percent). 



Table 46. — Percentage distribution of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts 
specialists, and classroom teachers reporting frequency of participation in various 
collaborative activities related to teaching within the last 12 months: Academic year 
1999-2000 





Music specialists 


Visual arts specialists 


Classroom teachers 


Collaborative activity 


Never 


A few 

times a 

year 


At least 
once a 
month 


Never 


A few 
times a 

year 


At least 
once a 
month 


Never 


A few 

times a 

year 


At least 
once a 
month 



Common planning period with (other) 

regular classroom teachers 74 19 7 61 29 10 14 18 

Sharing ideas about teaching with 

teachers outside assigned school(s) 16 50 34 21 49 30 13 51 

Participating in site-based management or 

school improvement teams 58 24 18 47 30 23 22 38 

Providing input in the preparation of 

Individual Education Plans 65 30 5 60 31 9 13 59 

NOTE: Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



68 
35 
40 
27 



78 



Support for Arts Education from 
Parents and School Staff 

Overall, 46 percent of music specialists and 
44 percent of visual arts specialists strongly 
agreed with the statement that parents support 
them in their efforts to educate their children 
(table 47). Fifty-eight percent of music 

specialists and 53 percent of visual arts 
specialists strongly agreed that they were 
supported by the administration at their schools. 
Twenty-five percent of music specialists and 
31 percent of visual arts specialists strongly 
agreed with the statement that other teachers 
considered the arts subject they taught as an 
important part of their school's curriculum. 

Music specialists differed from visual arts 
specialists with respect to their belief that 
administrators and other teachers favored 
interdisciplinary instruction that included their 
subject area. Thirty-eight percent of visual arts 
specialists strongly agreed with this statement, 
compared with 23 percent of music specialists. 
Also, visual arts specialists were more likely 
than music specialists to strongly agree that 
students were motivated to do well in their 
classes (64 percent versus 45 percent). 

Table 47. — Percentage distribution of public elementary school music and visual arts specialists 

indicating the degree to which they agree with various statements about how instruction 
in music and visual arts is valued at their schools: Academic year 1999-2000 



Curriculum and Instruction 
in the Arts 

In 1992, the National Council on Education 
Standards and Testing (NCEST) issued a report 
entitled Raising Standards for American Education. 
A Report to Congress, the Secretary of Education, 
the National Education Goals Panel, and the 
American People (1992). It called for the 
development of voluntary national education 
standards, along with aligned systems of assessment 
in core subjects. In 1994, the voluntary National 
Standards for Arts Education were published 
(Consortium of National Arts Education 
Associations 1994). These standards were designed 
to establish clear guidelines for what a student 
should know and be able to do in the arts. 
Specifically, they promoted the notion that students 
should develop an understanding of such questions 
as the following: What are the arts? How do artists 
work, and what tools do they use? How do 
traditional, popular, and classical art forms influence 
one another? Why are the arts important to me and 
my society? 





Music 


Visual arts 


Supportive statement 


Strongly 
disagree 


Some- 
what 
disagree 


Some- 
what 
agree 


Strongly 
agree 


Strongly 
disagree 


Some- 
what 
disagree 


Some- 
what 
agree 


Strongly 
agree 



Parents support me in my efforts to 

educate their children 2 6 46 46 2 6 48 44 

The administration supports me in my 

work 3 11 28 58 3 11 33 53 

Other teachers consider my subject an 

important part of the school's 

curriculum 6 20 49 25 4 16 48 31 

The school administrators and teachers 

are in favor of interdisciplinary 

instruction that includes my subject 5 18 54 23 4 13 46 38 

Students are motivated to do well in my 

class 2 10 43 45 1 6 29 64_ 

NOTE: Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



79 



The 2000 surveys of elementary public school 
music and visual arts specialists included 
questions about the instructional program in each 
arts subject, whether it was based on a local or 
district curriculum guide, aligned with state 
standards or the National Standards, or integrated 
with other arts or non-arts subjects. Arts 
specialists were also asked to indicate the extent to 
which they emphasized various goals or objectives 
of student learning, and the kinds of assessments 
that they used to determine student progress and 
achievement. To assess the extent to which arts 
instruction took place in students' regular 
classrooms, the classroom teacher survey included 
a question about whether or not different arts 
subjects were incorporated into instruction in other 
subject areas. 

Arts specialists and regular classroom teachers 
were asked to indicate whether four statements 
about arts curricula described the instructional 
programs that they followed. Specifically, they 
were asked whether their schools' instructional 
programs in the arts were (1) based on a written, 
sequential, local (or district) curriculum guide, (2) 
aligned with their state's standards or the National 
Standards for Arts Education, (3) integrated with 
other arts subjects, and (4) integrated with other 
academic subjects. 



Eighty-six percent of music specialists and 
87 percent of visual art specialists reported that 
their instructional programs were aligned with 
their state's standards or the National Standards 
for Arts Education (table 48). Most arts specialists 
also indicated that their programs were based on a 
local or district curriculum guide (79 percent of 
music specialists and 73 percent of visual arts 
specialists). However, visual arts specialists were 
more likely than music specialists to report that 
their programs either were integrated with other 
arts subjects (69 percent versus 41 percent) or with 
other academic subjects (77 percent versus 
47 percent). 

Ninety-two percent of classroom teachers 
indicated that they included arts instruction in 
some aspects of their instructional program. Of 
these, 22 percent indicated that their arts 
curriculum was based on a local or district 
curriculum guide, but 1 7 percent did not know if it 
was or not (not shown in tables). Twenty- 
nine percent indicated that their arts curriculum 
was aligned with arts standards, while 56 percent 
reported that they did not know if this was the 
case. Eighty-eight percent of classroom teachers 
indicated that their arts instruction was integrated 
with other academic subjects. 



Table 48. — Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers reporting various characteristics of the arts curriculum that is 
taught at their schools: Academic year 1999-2000 



Characteristic of arts curriculum 



Music specialists 



Visual arts specialists 



Classroom teachers* 



Based on a local or district curriculum guide 79 73 22 

Aligned with state standards or National Standards for Arts Education .... 86 87 29 

Integrated with other arts subjects 41 69 ( — ) 

Integrated with other academic subjects 47 77 88 

— Not available; statistic not collected for the classroom teacher survey. 

'Percentages are based on the 92 percent of regular classroom teachers who reported including arts instruction in any aspect of their instructional 
program. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists,'' and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



80 



Classroom teachers who included arts instruction 
were also asked a series of questions addressing 
the extent to which they incorporated various arts 
subjects into their instruction in other areas 
(table 49). Fifteen percent of classroom teachers 
incorporated music into their instruction to a great 
extent, and 27 percent incorporated visual arts into 
their instruction to a great extent. Twenty- 
eight percent of classroom teachers indicated that 
they teach thematic units that integrate various 
subjects, including the arts, to a great extent. On 
the other hand, 55 percent of classroom teachers 
reported never having incorporated dance into 
instruction, and 49 percent never used 
prepackaged curriculum materials or textbooks to 
teach the arts. 



Goals and Objectives of Student Learning 

The National Standards for Arts Education 
provides lists of content standards for each arts 
area. In order to capture the extent to which arts 
teachers were addressing these content standards, 
the content standards for music and visual arts 
were used as a basis for developing the survey 
questions about the goals and objectives of student 
learning. Music and visual arts specialists were 
asked to indicate the extent to which they 
emphasized various goals and objectives in their 
instruction. 



Table 49. — Percentage distribution of public elementary school classroom teachers, according to 
the extent to which they included the arts in their instruction, by type of activity: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



Activity 



Not at all 



Small extent 



Moderate extent 



Great extent 



Incorporate music into instruction in other subject areas 10 48 27 15 

Incorporate visual arts into instruction in other subject areas 1 23 49 27 

Incorporate drama/theatre into instruction in other subject areas.... 10 52 30 8 

Incorporate dance into instruction in other subject areas 55 33 9 3 

Teach thematic units that integrate subjects, including the arts 7 27 38 28 

Use prepackaged curriculum materials or textbooks to teach the 

arts 49 36 11 3 

NOTE: Percentages are based on the 92 percent of regular classroom teachers who reported including arts instruction in any aspect of their 
instructional program. Row percentages may not sum to 1 00 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, and "Arts Survey of 
Elementary School Classroom Teachers," FRSS 77. 



81 



Goals and objectives for student learning in 
music. The two content areas in which the 
highest percentage of music specialists placed 
major emphasis in their teaching were singing a 
varied repertoire of music (54 percent), and 
reading and notating music (51 percent) 
(table 50). 23 Twenty-seven percent of music 
specialists placed no emphasis on composing and 
arranging music, and 48 percent indicated a minor 
emphasis on this objective of student learning. 



Sixteen percent of music specialists gave no 
emphasis to improvising melodies, variations, and 
accompaniments, and 50 percent gave minor 
emphasis. Goals such as these may be viewed as 
more appropriate for secondary school students, 
although the National Standards for Music 
Education do include several achievement 
standards at the elementary level under each of 
these topics. 



Table 50. — Percentage distribution of public elementary school music specialists reporting the 
degree to which they emphasize various goals or objectives of student learning: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



Goal or objective in music 



No 
emphasis 



Minor 
emphasis 



Moderate 
emphasis 



Major 
emphasis 



Singing a varied repertoire of music 10 9 27 54 

Performing a varied repertoire on a range of instruments 8 28 40 24 

Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments 16 50 27 7 

Composing and arranging music 27 48 19 6 

Reading and notating music 2 10 38 51 

Listening to, analyzing, and describing music 3 24 45 29 

Evaluating music and music performances 7 29 41 23 

Learning about the expressive possibilities of music 1 19 39 41 

Making connections between music, the other arts, and other 

disciplines 4 31 37 29 

Understanding music in relation to history and cultures 3 28 37 32 

NOTE: Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," FRSS 77. 



23 An exception was that music specialists were as likely to place 
major emphasis on learning about the expressive possibilities of 
music (41 percent) as on reading and notating music (51 percent). 
Although the difference between estimates appears large, it is not 
statistically significant because the estimates have relatively large 
standard errors (2.8 and 2.8, respectively). 



82 






Goals and objectives for student learning in 
visual arts. The content areas in which the 
highest percentage of visual arts teachers placed 
major emphasis were understanding and applying 
various media, techniques, and processes 
(72 percent) and using knowledge of elements, 
functions, and principles of art (69 percent) 
(table 5 1 ). Fifty-six percent of visual arts teachers 
also placed major emphasis on creating works in a 
broad range of art forms (i.e., fine arts, design arts, 
or crafts), and 51 percent placed major emphasis 
on understanding the visual arts in relation to 
history and cultures. Few visual arts specialists 
reported placing no emphasis on the content areas 
included in the survey (3 percent or less), and 
20 percent or fewer of the specialists placed minor 
emphasis on any areas (3 to 19 percent). 



Assessment in the Arts 

Teachers were asked whether they used any 
formal assessments of student achievement, and if 
so, to indicate the extent to which they used 
various assessment techniques. Many music and 
visual arts specialists did use some formal 
assessments to determine student progress and 
achievement (91 percent of music specialists, and 
87 percent of visual arts teachers). Forty- 
eight percent of classroom teachers who included 
arts instruction in any aspect of their instructional 
program indicated that they used some formal 
assessments to evaluate student progress in their 
arts instruction (not shown in tables). 



Table 51. — Percentage distribution of public elementary school visual arts specialists reporting the 
degree to which they emphasize various goals or objectives of student learning: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



Goal or objective in visual art 



No 
emphasis 



Minor 
emphasis 



Moderate 
emphasis 



Major 
emphasis 



Creating works in a broad range of art forms 1 7 36 56 

Understanding and applying various media, techniques, and 

processes (#) 3 25 72 

Using knowledge of elements, functions, and principles of art 4 26 69 

Choosing and evaluating a range of subject matter, symbols, and 

ideas 1 11 42 46 

Learning about the expressive possibilities of visual arts (#) 11 44 45 

Reflecting upon and assessing own or others' work (#) 18 52 29 

Making connections between visual arts, other arts, and other 

disciplines 3 19 41 37 

Understanding visual arts in relation to history and cultures 1 14 34 51 

#Estimate less than 0.5 percent. 

NOTE: Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



83 



Music specialists relied on the processes of 
creating art and the products that result from these 
processes in their assessment of student learning. 
Eighty-seven percent of music specialists used 
observation of students as an assessment strategy 
to a great extent, and 56 percent used performance 
tasks to a great extent (table 52). On the other 
hand, selected-response assessments, short written 
answers or essays, portfolio collections of student 
work, and developed rubrics were used by 
12 percent or fewer of music specialists to a great 
extent (12 percent, 3 percent, 6 percent, and 
6 percent, respectively). 

Visual art specialists also relied on observation of 
students and performance tasks or projects. 
Eighty-two percent used observation to a great 
extent, and 73 percent used performance tasks or 



projects to a great extent. Thirty-five percent of 
visual arts specialists used portfolio collections of 
student work to a great extent. However, few 
visual arts specialists indicated that they rely to a 
great extent on selected-response assessments 
(3 percent), short written answers or essays 
(4 percent), or developed rubrics (14 percent). 

Sixty-one percent of regular classroom teachers 
who reported incorporating arts into their 
classrooms and assessing student progress in art- 
related activities used observation to evaluate that 
progress to a great extent. Performance tasks or 
projects were used to a great extent by 44 percent 
of these classroom teachers, and 27 percent used 
portfolio collections of student work as an 
assessment technique to a great extent. 



Table 52. — Percentage distribution of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts 

specialists, and classroom teachers reporting the extent to which they use various types 
of assessments in their arts instruction: Academic year 1999-2000 



Extent of use 



Observation 



Selected- 
response 
assessments 



Short written 

answers or 

essays 



Performance 
tasks or 
projects 



Portfolio 

collections 

of student 

work 



Developed 
rubrics 



Music specialists' 

Not at all 1 25 47 3 67 54 

Small extent 2 30 35 12 19 25 

Moderate extent 10 33 16 29 9 15 

Great extent 87 12 3 56 6 6 

Visual arts specialists 2 

Not at all (#) 52 45 3 23 35 

Small extent 1 31 34 5 19 26 

Moderate extent 17 13 18 19 24 25 

Greatextent 82 3 4 73 35 14 

Classroom teachers 3 

Not at all 3 61 53 7 24 43 

Small extent 10 23 23 18 23 24 

Moderate extent 26 13 16 31 26 20 

Greatextent 61 3 7 44 27 13 

#Estimate less than 0.5 percent. 

'Percentages are based on the 91 percent of music specialists who reported including arts instruction in any aspect of their instructional program 
and doing any formal assessments in the arts. 

Percentages are based on the 87 percent of visual arts specialists who reported including arts instruction in any aspect of their instructional 
program and doing any formal assessments in the arts. 

Percentages are based on the 44 percent of regular classroom teachers who reported including arts instruction in any aspect of their instructional 
program and doing any formal assessments in the arts. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



84 



Involvement in the Arts 
Outside of School 

To gain information on teachers' engagement in 
the arts outside of their teaching professions, arts 
specialists were asked to indicate the extent to 
which they participated in a variety of activities 
related to the arts. This information provides 
some indication of whether teachers keep their 
knowledge and skills current through performing 
and creating their own artwork, studying or 
writing about art, or responding to the artwork of 
others. 

Music specialists were most likely to participate to 
a great extent in performing as a soloist or with an 



ensemble (38 percent) and attending live music 
performances (33 percent) (table 53). Visual arts 
specialists were most likely to participate to a 
great extent in creating works of art (27 percent) 
and viewing and responding to the works of other 
artists (3 1 percent) (table 54). Classroom teachers 
reported some engagement in the arts outside of 
their school duties. Thirteen percent reported that 
they participated to a great extent in attending 
museums or arts performances, and 43 percent 
reported doing so to a moderate extent (table 55). 
Some classroom teachers created or performed 
works of art as well, with 7 percent indicating that 
they do so to a great extent and 16 percent doing 
so to a moderate extent. 



Table 53. — Percentage distribution of public elementary music specialists reporting the extent to 
which they participate in various activities related to music outside of their regular 
school duties, by type of activity: Academic year 1999-2000 



Activity 



Not at all 



Small extent 



Moderate extent 



Great extent 



Provide instrument/voice instruction 31 27 21 21 

Perform as a soloist or with an ensemble 17 15 30 38 

Compose or arrange music 43 30 18 10 

Conduct community or other ensembles 51 18 15 16 

Attend live music performances 1 23 43 33 

Study, critique, or write about music 52 30 11 7 

Provide arts leadership in community or state 44 30 19 8 

NOTE: Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 

School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



Table 54. — Percentage distribution of public elementary visual arts specialists reporting the extent 
to which they participate in activities related to visual arts outside of school duties, by 
type of activity: Academic year 1999-2000 



Activity 



Not at all 



Small extent 



Moderate extent 



Great extent 



Teach art at a studio or gallery 74 12 8 6 

Create works of art 5 28 40 27 

Exhibit works of art 44 29 17 9 

View and respond to art at museums or galleries 6 21 42 31 

Study, critique, or write about art 35 33 22 11 

Provide arts leadership in community or state 39 33 20 8 

NOTE: Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 

85 



Table 55. — Percentage distribution of public elementary classroom teachers reporting the extent to 
which they participate in activities related to the arts outside of school duties, by type of 
activity: Academic year 1999-2000 






Activity 



Not at all 



Small extent 



Moderate extent 



Great extent 



Create or perform works of art 52 25 16 7 

Teach one of the arts 88 7 3 3 

View or respond to art 11 33 43 13 

Study, critique, or write about art 81 14 4 1 

Provide arts leadership in community or state 88 9 2 1 

NOTE: Row percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, and "Arts Survey of 
Elementary School Classroom Teachers," FRSS 77. 



86 



5. CONCLUSIONS 



This report is based on data that were collected 
from elementary and secondary school principals 
and from elementary school arts specialists and 
classroom teachers during the 1999-2000 school 
year. At the time of the surveys, there were no 
national data sources that specifically addressed 
the condition of arts education in the nation's 
public schools. The study upon which this report 
was based aimed to fill this data gap by providing 
a national profile of arts education in public 
elementary and secondary schools in 1999-2000. 
Information was collected from school principals 
on a wide variety of topics related to how the arts 
were delivered in the nation's regular public 
schools, such as the availability and characteristics 
of instructional programs in music, visual arts, 
dance, and drama/theatre; staffing; space for arts 
instruction; and funding sources. Other topics 
included supplemental programs and activities in 
the arts, administrative support, and the perceived 
status of the arts among school staff and parents. 
Information was gathered in the teacher surveys 
on the educational backgrounds of music 
specialists, visual arts specialists, and self- 
contained classroom teachers at the elementary 
level, their professional development activities, 
their work environments, their views on the 
resources made available to them, and their 
instructional practices. This chapter summarizes 
findings across this broad array of topics, 
highlights noteworthy comparisons, and draws 
some general conclusions. 



Arts Instruction in Public 
Elementary and Secondary Schools 

Arts instruction is carried out differently within 
elementary and secondary schools. At the 
secondary level, arts instruction is provided 
primarily through elective courses and is often 
taught by multiple specialists in each of the four 
arts subjects. In contrast, at the elementary level, 
arts instruction is usually limited to music and 
visual arts and is part of a standard curriculum in 
which all students participate (Carey et al. 1995). 
It is for these reasons that distinct surveys were 



sent to elementary and secondary school 
principals. Further, given these fundamental 
differences in the ways in which the arts are 
delivered at the elementary and secondary levels, 
comparisons across education levels are not 
appropriate. 



Elementary Schools 

Findings from the elementary school survey 
indicate that music and visual arts instruction were 
available in most of the nation's regular 
elementary schools (94 percent and 87 percent, 
respectively). Dance and drama/theatre instruction 
were less commonly available at the elementary 
level (20 percent and 14 percent, respectively). Of 
those schools offering instruction in arts subjects, 
dedicated rooms with special equipment were used 
for music by 67 percent of schools, for visual arts 
by 56 percent, for dance by 14 percent, and for 
drama/theatre by 13 percent of schools. 

Overall, 72 percent of elementary schools that 
offered music instruction and 55 percent of 
elementary schools that offered visual arts 
instruction employed full-time specialists to teach 
these subjects. Full-time specialists in dance were 
employed by 24 percent of elementary schools that 
offered this subject, and full-time specialists in 
drama/theatre were employed by 1 6 percent of 
elementary schools that offered it. Dance was 
more likely than music to be taught by artists-in- 
residence, while drama/theatre was more likely 
than both music and visual arts to be taught by 
artists-in-residence (15 percent of schools for 
dance and drama/theatre, 3 percent for music, and 
6 percent for visual arts). Also, dance and 
drama/theatre were both more likely than music 
and visual arts to be taught by other faculty or 
volunteers (20 percent for dance, 17 percent for 
drama/theatre, 4 percent for music, and 6 percent 
for visual arts) in elementary schools. 

As for space, elementary schools were more likely 
to have a dedicated room with special equipment 
for teaching music (67 percent) than visual arts 
(56 percent), dance (14 percent), and drama/ 



87 



theatre (13 percent). Elementary schools were 
equally likely to have a district curriculum guide 
in music as in visual arts (81 percent versus 
78 percent). They were less likely to have guides 
in dance (49 percent) or drama/theatre 
(36 percent). During the 1998-99 school year, 
77 percent of all regular public elementary schools 
sponsored field trips to arts performances and 
65 percent sponsored field trips to art galleries or 
museums. Thirty-eight percent sponsored visiting 
artists, 22 percent sponsored artists-in-residence, 
and 51 percent of public elementary schools 
sponsored after-school activities in the arts during 
the 1998-99 school year. 



Secondary Schools 

Among secondary schools, survey results indicate 
that 90 percent offered music instruction during 
the regular school day in 1999-2000, and 
93 percent offered visual arts instruction. 
Fourteen percent of secondary schools offered 
instruction in dance, and 48 percent offered 
instruction in drama/theatre during the regular 
school day in 1999-2000. In 1999-2000, 
91 percent of public secondary schools that 
offered music instruction had dedicated music 
rooms with special equipment for teaching the 
subject, and 87 percent of those with visual arts 
instruction had dedicated art rooms with special 
equipment. Of the schools that offered dance, 
41 percent provided dedicated dance spaces with 
special equipment, and of those that offered 
drama/theatre, 53 percent provided dedicated 
theatre spaces with special equipment. 

Most public secondary schools that offered music, 
visual arts, dance, and drama/theatre employed 
full-time specialists to teach these subjects, with 
91 percent having one or more full-time music 
specialists, 94 percent having one or more full- 
time visual arts specialists, 77 percent having one 
or more full-time dance specialists, and 84 percent 
having one or more full-time drama/theatre 
specialists. Secondary schools were more likely to 
have two or more full-time teachers who taught 
courses in music than in visual arts (53 percent 
versus 32 percent), although it should be noted 
that some of the full-time teachers included in 
these percentages might have taught music courses 
(e.g., band) and yet not be music specialists. 



Secondary schools were more likely to have 
curriculum guides in music and visual arts than in 
dance and drama/theatre (86 and 87 percent versus 
68 and 75 percent, respectively). During the 1998- 
99 school year, field trips to arts performances 
were sponsored by 69 percent of all regular public 
secondary schools, and 68 percent sponsored field 
trips to art galleries or museums. Thirty- 
four percent of secondary schools sponsored 
visiting artists, 18 percent sponsored artists-in- 
residence, and 73 percent sponsored after-school 
activities in the arts during the 1998-99 school 
year. 



Differences by School Characteristics 

Findings of the elementary and secondary surveys 
reveal that how the arts were taught in 1 999-2000 
varied to some extent by school characteristics 
such as enrollment size, locale, region, percentage 
minority enrollment, and poverty concentration. 
In general, large schools, schools in the Northeast 
(especially at the secondary level), schools with 
low minority enrollments, and schools with low 
poverty concentrations tended for some indicators 
to show more activity in arts education. 

School enrollment size. Large elementary 
schools (600 students or more) were more likely 
than small elementary schools (less than 300 
students) to employ full-time music specialists 
(80 percent versus 57 percent) and visual arts 
specialists (70 percent versus 45 percent), have 
dedicated rooms with special equipment for 
teaching visual arts (67 percent versus 41 percent), 
sponsor field trips to art performances (86 versus 
67 percent), provide after-school activities in the 
arts (65 percent versus and 40 percent), and have a 
district level coordinator in the arts (65 percent 
versus 42 percent). 

Large secondary schools ( 1 ,000 or more students) 
were more likely than small secondary schools 
(less than 400 students) to provide instruction in 
music (95 percent versus 84 percent), visual arts 
(98 percent versus 85 percent), dance (32 percent 
versus 5 percent), and drama/theatre (75 percent 
versus 30 percent). Also, large secondary schools 
were more likely to offer more than six courses in 
music (48 percent versus 9 percent) and visual arts 
(39 percent versus 7 percent), sponsor field trips to 
art galleries or museums (82 percent versus 



88 



64 percent), sponsor after-school activities in the 
arts (83 percent versus 64 percent), and have a 
district- level coordinator in the arts (53 percent 
versus 39 percent). 

Region. At the elementary school level, schools 
in the West differed from those in other regions on 
a variety of items. For example, schools in the 
West were less likely than schools in the Northeast 
and Central regions to employ full-time specialists 
to teach music (57 percent versus 76 and 
80 percent), and to have a district curriculum 
guide for music (71 percent versus 91 and 

88 percent). In addition, schools in the West were 
less likely than all other regions to employ full- 
time specialists to teach visual arts (26 percent 
versus 55 to 76 percent), have a district curriculum 
guide for visual arts (62 percent versus 83 to 

89 percent), and have arts specialists on site-based 
management teams (36 percent versus 63 to 
76 percent). 

At the secondary school level, schools in the 
Northeast were notably different from other 
regions with respect to some aspects of their arts 
education programs. Specifically, schools in the 
Northeast were more likely than schools in the 
other regions to offer more than six visual arts 
courses during the 1998-99 school year 
(34 percent versus 8 to 19 percent), have two or 
more full-time teachers who taught visual arts 
courses during the 1998-99 school year 
(50 percent versus 25 to 33 percent), sponsor 
artists-in-residence (33 percent versus 14 to 
16 percent), include the arts in their schools' 
mission statements (79 percent versus 58 to 
60 percent), and have school improvement 
initiatives related to arts education (72 percent 
versus 38 to 50 percent). 

Percentage minority enrollment and poverty 
concentration. Although the percentages of 
elementary schools offering instruction in music 
and visual arts did not vary by minority enrollment 
or poverty concentration in 1999, elementary 
schools did vary by percentages of minority 
enrollment and poverty concentration with respect 
to several features of their arts education 
programs. Schools with the lowest minority 
enrollment (5 percent or less) were more likely 
than those with the highest minority enrollment 
(more than 50 percent) to have a dedicated room 
with special equipment for music instruction 



(71 percent versus 53 percent) and a district 
curriculum guide for music (87 percent versus 
71 percent). Schools with the lowest poverty 
concentration (less than 35 percent eligible for free 
or reduced-price lunch) were more likely than 
those with the highest poverty concentration 
(75 percent or more) to have a dedicated room 
with special equipment for music instruction 
(70 percent versus 5 1 percent) and visual arts 
instruction (65 percent versus 42 percent); a 
district curriculum guide for music (88 percent 
versus 73 percent) and visual arts (84 percent 
versus 70 percent); and input from arts specialists 
on staff hiring (43 percent versus 21 percent), the 
curriculum (75 percent versus 50 percent), and the 
allocation of arts funds (62 percent versus 
40 percent). 

There was not a great deal of variation at the 
secondary level by percentage minority enrollment 
and poverty concentration. Secondary schools 
with the lowest minority enrollment were more 
likely than schools with the highest minority 
enrollment to receive outside funding for their 
music programs (56 percent versus 33 percent) 
and to have two or more full-time teachers who 
taught courses in visual arts (54 percent versus 
23 percent). Schools with the lowest poverty 
concentration were more likely than those with the 
highest poverty concentration to receive outside 
funding for their music programs (54 percent 
versus 23 percent), and to have a dedicated space 
with special equipment for visual arts. There was 
no variation by either minority enrollment or 
poverty concentration with respect to the 
availability of music and visual arts instruction. 



Arts Teachers in Public 
Elementary Schools 

As a complement to the elementary school survey, 
the elementary school music specialist, visual arts 
specialist, and self-contained classroom teacher 
surveys provided data on a broad range of topics 
regarding how the arts were taught in the nation's 
public elementary schools in 1999-2000. Topics 
included the educational backgrounds (e.g., 
degrees, certification, years of experience) of 
music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers; participation in professional 
development activities; teaching load; teaching 



89 



practices; collaboration and integration of the arts 
into other areas of the curriculum; and teacher 
involvement in arts-related activities outside of 
school. Classroom teachers were included in the 
survey to compare the qualifications and teaching 
responsibilities of arts specialists to those of non- 
arts teachers and to determine the extent to which 
classroom teachers were incorporating the arts into 
their instruction and participating in professional 
development relevant to arts instruction. 

Virtually all teachers surveyed had a bachelor's 
degree in 1999-2000 (99.9 percent), and close to 
half of all music specialists, visual arts specialists, 
and classroom teachers held a master's degree 
(45 percent, 39 percent, and 43 percent, 
respectively). Most teachers were certified in the 
field of their main teaching assignment. Most 
music specialists (91 percent) were certified to 
teach music, and 90 percent of the teachers that 
were certified to teach music had regular, 
standard, or professional certification. Similarly, 

89 percent of visual arts specialists were certified 
to teach art, of which 89 percent indicated that 
they had a regular, standard, or professional 
certification. One hundred percent of regular 
classroom teachers had a general elementary 
education certificate, of which 93 percent held a 
regular, standard, or professional certificate. 

As for professional development, music specialists 
(49 to 72 percent) and visual arts specialists (56 to 
79 percent) were more likely to have participated 
in arts-related professional development in the last 
12 months than were regular classroom teachers 
(27 to 46 percent). The three arts-related 
professional development activities asked about 
were applied study in an arts area, developing 
knowledge about an arts subject area, and 
connecting arts learning with other subject areas. 
On the other hand, classroom teachers (84 to 

90 percent) were more likely than music 
specialists (65 to 78 percent) and visual arts 
specialists (64 to 8 1 percent) to have participated 
in professional development designed for all 
teachers. The four general professional 
development activities asked about were new 
methods of teaching, incorporating state or district 
standards into instruction, student performance 
assessment, and integrating education technologies 
into instruction. It should be noted, however, that 
many arts specialists participated in general 
teacher professional development activities, and 



many classroom teachers participated in activities 
related to arts education. 

Music and visual arts specialists provided 
information on their teaching load during the 
1999-2000 school year. About half of all music 
and visual arts specialists taught at one school (44 
and 51 percent), about a third taught at two 
schools (30 and 33 percent), and the remainder 
taught at three or more schools. Music specialists 
taught on average six classes during a typical 
school day and visual arts specialists taught five 
on average. During a typical school week in 1999- 
2000, visual arts specialists had an average of 4.2 
hours each week designated for planning and 
preparation during regular school hours (i.e., when 
students were in attendance). Music specialists 
and classroom teachers had slightly less time 
designated for these purposes (3.6 and 3.4 hours, 
respectively). 

Both music and visual arts specialists reported that 
the facilities provided to them by their schools 
were moderately or completely adequate for 
supporting their instruction. However, about half 
of the specialists indicated that the time for 
individual or collaborative planning was 
minimally or not at all adequate. Furthermore, 
68 percent of classroom teachers indicated that 
they participated in common planning periods with 
other classroom teachers at least once a month, 
compared with 7 percent of music specialists and 
10 percent of visual arts specialists. Also, music 
and visual arts specialists were less likely than 
classroom teachers to participate at least once each 
month in site-based management teams (18 and 
23 percent versus 40 percent), or in the preparation 
of individual educational plans for students with 
special needs (5 and 9 percent versus 27 percent). 

The majority of music and visual arts specialists 
reported that the arts curriculum they teach from 
was based on a local or district curriculum guide 
that was aligned with their states' standards or the 
National Standards for Arts Education (79 and 
73 percent). Forty-seven percent of music 
specialists and 77 percent of visual arts specialists 
reported that their instructional programs were 
integrated with other academic subjects. Also, 
nearly all classroom teachers reported that they 
included arts instruction in some aspect of their 
instructional programs, and the majority indicated 
that the arts they taught were integrated into other 



90 



curriculum areas as part of thematic units of 
instruction. 

While the majority of arts specialists indicated that 
they did conduct some formal assessments to 
determine student progress and achievement, this 
was primarily in the form of observation and 
performance assessment, with limited use of 
written responses to questions, portfolio 
collections, or developed rubrics. 



Arts Education: 1999-2000 



programs in public elementary and secondary 
schools, with particular emphasis on arts education 
at the elementary school level. Overall, the 
findings suggest that arts education (and especially 
music and visual arts) was an integral part of many 
elementary and secondary public schools in 1 999- 
2000. Future researchers may want to explore the 
teaching of arts at the secondary school level, 
specifically focusing on the educational 
backgrounds, teaching practices, and working 
conditions of arts specialists in secondary schools. 
Also, future studies should track the status of arts 
education at both school levels over time. 



This national profile of arts education provided 
information regarding the state of arts education 



91 



92 



REFERENCES 



Carey, N., Sikes, M., Foy, R., and Carpenter, J. (1995) Arts Education in Public Elementary and 

Secondary Schools. (NCES 95-082). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: NCES. 

Chatterall, J., Chapleau, R., and Iwanaga, J. (1999). Involvement in the Arts and Human Development: 
General Involvement and Intensive Involvement in Music and Theater Arts. In E. Fiske (Ed.), 
Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning. The John D. and Catherine T. 
MacArthur Foundation, GE Fund and Arts Education Partnership. 

Consortium of National Arts Education Associations. (1994). National Standards for Arts Education. 
Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference. 

Cortines, R. (1999). Introduction. In L. Longley (Ed.), Gaining the Arts Advantage: Lessons from School 
Districts that Value Arts Education. President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities and 
Arts Education Partnership. 

Eisner, E. (1997). Does Experience in the Arts Boost Academic Achievement? Palo Alto, CA: Stanford 
University. 

Goals 2000 Arts Education Partnership. (1997). Priorities for Arts Education Research. Washington, 
DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. 

Lewis, L., Parsad, B., Carey, N., Bartfai, N., Farris, L., Smerdon, B., and Greene, B. (1999). Teacher 
Quality: A Report on the Preparation and Qualifications of Public School Teachers. (NCES 
1999-080). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: NCES. 

National Council on Education Standards and Testing. (1992). Raising Standards for American 

Education. A Report to Congress, the Secretary of Education, the National Education Goals 
Panel, and the American People. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 

National Endowment for the Arts. ( 1 988). Toward Civilization: A Report on Arts Education. 
Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts. 

Persky, H.R., Sandene, B.A., and Askew, J.M. (1998). The NAEP 1997 Arts Report Card: Eight Grade 
Findings From the National Assessment of Educational Progress. (NCES 1999-486). 
Washington, DC: NCES. 

Robinson, J. P. (1993). Arts Participation in America: 1982-1992. Washington, DC: National 
Endowment for the Arts. 

U.S. Public Law 103-382. 103rd Cong., 2d sess., 20 October, 1994. Improving America's Schools Act of 
1994. 

Wilson, B. (1997). The Quiet Evolution: Changing the Face of Arts Education. Los Angeles, CA: The 
Getty Education Institute for the Arts. 

Winner, E., and Cooper, M. (2000). Mute Those Claims: No Evidence (Yet) for a Causal Link Between 
Arts Study and Academic Achievement. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34 (3-4), 1 1-76. 



93 



94 



Appendix A 
Survey Methodology 



A-l 



A-2 



Table of Contents 

Page 

Fast Response Survey System A- 5 

Sample Selection A-5 

School-Level Respondents and Response Rates A-6 

Teacher-Level Respondents and Response Rates A- 7 

Sampling and Nonsampling Errors A- 7 

Variances A- 13 

Definitions of Analysis Variables A- 14 

Comparisons with the 1994 Arts Education Study A-15 

Background Information A- 16 



Table 



List of Appendix Tables 



A-l Number and percentage distribution of all regular public elementary 

schools in the study, and the estimated number and percentage distribution 

in the nation, by school characteristics: Fall 1999 A-8 

A-2 Number and percentage distribution of all regular public secondary schools 
in the study, and the estimated number and percentage distribution in the 
nation, by school characteristics: Fall 1999 A-9 

A-3 Number and percentage distribution of all regular public elementary school 
music specialists in the study, and the estimated number and percentage 
distribution in the nation, by school characteristics: Spring 2000 A-10 

A-4 Number and percentage distribution of all regular public elementary school 
visual arts specialists in the study, and the estimated number and 
percentage distribution in the nation, by school characteristics: Spring 
2000 A-ll 

A-5 Number and percentage distribution of all regular public elementary school 
self-contained classroom teachers in the study, and the estimated number 
and percentage distribution in the nation, by school characteristics: Spring 
2000 A-12 



A-3 



A-4 



Fast Response Survey System 

The Fast Response Survey System (FRSS) was 
established in 1975 by the National Center for 
Education Statistics (NCES), U.S. Department of 
Education. FRSS is designed to collect small 
amounts of issue-oriented data with minimal 
burden on respondents and within a relatively 
short timeframe. Surveys are generally limited to 
three pages of questions, with a response burden 
of about 30 minutes per respondent. Sample sizes 
are relatively small (usually about 1,000 to 1,500 
respondents per survey) so that data collection can 
be completed quickly. Data are weighted to 
produce national estimates of the sampled 
education sector. The sample size permits limited 
breakouts by classification variables. However, as 
the number of categories within the classification 
variables increases, the sample size within 
categories decreases, which results in larger 
sampling errors for the breakouts by classification 
variables. FRSS collects data from state education 
agencies, local education agencies, public and 
private elementary and secondary schools, public 
school teachers, and public libraries. 



Sample Selection 

The samples for the school surveys consisted of 
753 elementary school and 755 secondary school 
principals of regular public schools. Included in 
the mailing to the elementary school principals 
was a form for collecting a list of music, visual 
arts, and self-contained classroom teachers. The 
samples were selected using the 1999-2000 
Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) universe file, 
which was created from the 1997-98 NCES 
Common Core of Data (CCD) Public School 
Universe File. This sample was designed to 
minimize the overlap with other large NCES 
studies that were being conducted concurrently. 
The sampling frame included 81,405 regular 
public schools, consisting of 52,925 regular 
elementary schools, 27,055 regular secondary 
schools, and 1,425 regular combined schools. The 
frame included the 50 states and the District of 
Columbia and excluded special education, 
vocational, and alternative/other schools; schools 
in the U.S. territories; and schools with a high 



grade less than grade 1, or ungraded. A school 
was defined as an elementary school if the lowest 
grade was less than or equal to grade 6 and the 
highest grade was less than or equal to grade 8. A 
secondary school was defined as having a lowest 
grade greater than or equal to grade 7 and having 
grade 7 or higher. Combined schools were 
defined as those having grades higher than grade 8 
and lower than grade 7. 

Separate stratified samples of public elementary 
and secondary schools were selected to receive the 
appropriate survey instrument. Combined schools 
were given a chance for selection for both surveys, 
and if selected were asked to complete only one of 
the survey instruments. The sampling frame was 
stratified by instructional level (elementary, 
secondary, and combined) and school size (less 
than 300, 300 to 499, 500 to 999, 1,000 to 1,499, 
and 1,500 or more). Within the primary strata, 
schools were sorted by geographic region 
(Northeast, Southeast, Central, and West), locale 
(city, urban fringe, town, and rural), and percent 
minority enrollment (less than 5 percent, 5 to 19 
percent, 20 to 49 percent, and 50 percent or more) 
to produce additional implicit stratification. A 
sample of 753 elementary schools and 755 
secondary schools was then selected from the 
sorted frame with conditional probabilities that 
accounted for the selection of schools for other 
NCES studies, such as National Assessment of 
Educational Progress (NAEP), Early Childhood 
Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS- 
K), and Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). The 
conditional probabilities were designed to 
minimize the overlap with the samples selected for 
the other studies while at the same time ensuring 
that the overall probabilities of selection were 
roughly proportionate to the aggregate square root 
of the enrollment of schools in the stratum. 

Respondents at each sampled elementary school 
were asked to send lists of its teachers — music 
specialists, visual arts specialists, and classroom 
teachers — from which a teacher sampling frame 
was prepared. The list collection instructions 
asked respondents to take their complete roster of 
teachers, identify music and visual arts specialists, 
and cross off teachers in the following categories: 
preschool teachers, teachers' aides, bilingual/ESL 
teachers, special education teachers, and non-full- 



A-5 



time classroom teachers. Of the 753 sampled 
elementary schools, 634 provided a teacher list. 
Operations staff examined the records from the 
634 schools that provided teacher lists and found 
that 85 percent had provided complete rosters of 
teachers, while the remaining 15 percent provided 
only a selected list of teachers. About three-fourths 
(73 percent) of the lists were provided by 
principals, and 5 percent by the assistant principal. 
The remaining lists were provided by secretaries, 
teachers, or were unspecified. 

Exactly one teacher was randomly selected from 
each of the following groups: classroom teachers, 
full- or part-time music specialists (if available at 
the school), and full- or part-time visual arts 
specialists (if available). A total of 1,614 teachers 
were sampled: 559 music specialists, 422 visual 
arts specialists, and 633 self-contained classroom 
teachers. On average, 2.6 teachers were sampled 
per elementary school. 

Only elementary-level teachers, and not 
secondary- level teachers, were sampled. First, 
given scope limitations of FRSS surveys, it was 
necessary to limit the teacher survey to either the 
elementary or secondary level. Second, data 
collection at the secondary level would be 
constrained by the fact that arts instruction is 
provided primarily through elective courses and is 
often taught by multiple specialists in each of the 
four arts subjects. In contrast, at the elementary 
level, arts instruction is usually limited to music 
and visual arts and is part of a standard curriculum 
in which all students participate. For the teacher- 
level surveys, only music specialists, visual arts 
specialists, and classroom teachers were sampled. 
The number of schools offering dance and 
drama/theater teachers is small, so that it was not 
feasible to select adequate samples based on the 
list collection from the schools. 



School-Level Respondents 
and Response Rates 

Questionnaires and cover letters for the elementary 
and secondary school principal surveys were 
mailed in mid-September of 1999. Included in the 
elementary school mailing was a form for 



preparing a list of classroom teachers and arts 
specialists at the school. The cover letters 
indicated that the survey and list collection were 
designed to be completed by the school's 
principal. 

Telephone follow up for those who did not 
respond to the initial questionnaire mailing was 
conducted from mid-October 1999 through mid- 
February 2000 for secondary principals, and 
through mid-March 2000 for elementary 
principals. Of the 755 secondary schools selected 
for the sample, 3 schools were found to be out of 
the scope of the survey. Of the 753 sampled 
elementary schools, 1 8 were out of scope for the 
survey, while 20 were out of scope for the list 
collection. The discrepancy between the number 
of out-of-scope schools for the elementary survey 
and the list collection was due to two schools that 
had 5 through 8 grade spans. Although these 
schools were eligible for the survey, they had no 
teachers in self-contained classrooms and so they 
could not provide teacher lists appropriate this 
study. 

This left a total of 752 eligible secondary school 
principals, 735 eligible elementary school 
principals, and 733 eligible respondents for the list 
collection. Completed questionnaires were 
received from 686 secondary school principals and 
from 640 elementary school principals. 
Completed lists were received from 634 
elementary schools. The weighted response rates 
were 87.8 percent for the elementary school 
survey, 91.7 percent for the secondary school 
survey, and 87.3 percent for the teacher list 
collection. 

The item nonresponse rates for individual 
questionnaire items appearing in the secondary 
school survey rose above 3 percent for 14 items, 
with 10 of the 14 questions ranging between 4.7 to 
6.2 percent item nonresponse. The remaining 
four items involved the same question across the 
four arts subjects: what percent of the budget, 
designated for that subject, came from outside 
sources. A possible explanation of the high rate of 
item nonresponse for these four items (8.7 to 18.9 
percent) is that some respondents did not have 
ready access to this information, or that this 
information was not available. 



A-6 



All but seven of the questions appearing in the 
elementary school survey had item nonresponse 
rates of 3 percent or less. Six of the seven 
questions ranged between 4.7 and 6.6 percent. 
The question with the highest nonresponse rate 
(12.8 percent) was the same question that caused 
high item nonresponse in the secondary school 
survey, i.e., the percent of the budget designated 
for (in this case) drama/theatre that came from 
outside sources. Again, an explanation for the 
high item nonresponse rate is that some survey 
respondents did not have ready access this 
information or that the information was not 
available. 



Teacher-Level Respondents 
and Response Rates 

Questionnaires and cover letters were mailed to 
the sampled music specialists, visual arts 
specialists, and regular classroom teachers in late 
February 2000. The respondents were mailed one 
of three questionnaires that were tailored to each 
type of teaching assignment (see appendix C). 
Each cover letter indicated that the survey was 
designed to be completed by a music specialist, a 
visual arts specialist, or a regular classroom 
teacher. 

Telephone follow up for questionnaire 
nonresponse was conducted from mid-April 2000 
through late June 2000. Of the 1,614 teachers 
selected for the sample, 559 were music 
specialists, 422 were visual arts specialists, and 
633 were regular classroom teachers. Of these, 31 
music specialists, 36 visual arts specialists, and 50 
regular classroom teachers were out of the scope 
of the survey. For both the music and visual arts 
surveys, respondents were out of scope because 
they were not employed at the sampled school at 
the time of the study, or did not primarily teach 
music or visual arts at an elementary school. 
Respondents found to be out of scope for the 
classroom teacher survey included non-self- 
contained classroom teachers, such as special 
education or math teachers, teachers teaching 
grades beyond the grade scope of the survey, 
teachers who no longer taught at the school, and 
part-time teachers. Other reasons included teachers 



on long-term sick leave, long-term substitutes, and 
rotating teachers. 

A total of 528 eligible music specialists, 386 
eligible visual arts specialists, and 583 eligible 
classroom teachers were left in the sample. 
Completed questionnaires were received from 453 
music specialists, 331 visual arts specialists, and 
497 regular classroom teachers. The weighted 
response rates were 84.5 percent for the music 
specialist survey, 83.4 percent for the visual arts 
specialist survey, and 85.6 percent for the 
classroom teacher survey. The overall weighted 
response rates were computed by multiplying the 
weighted response rate for the teacher list 
collection (87.3 percent) by the weighted response 
rates of the particular surveys. The overall 
weighted response rate for the music specialist 
survey was 73.8 percent (87.3 percent multiplied 
by 84.5 percent), 72.8 percent for the visual arts 
specialist survey (87.3 percent multiplied by 83.4 
percent), and 74.7 percent for the classroom 
teacher survey (87.3 percent multiplied by 85.6 
percent). 

Item nonresponse for the three elementary teacher 
surveys was generally low, with a few items over 
3 percent. Six items from the music specialists 
survey had item nonresponse rates above 3 percent 
(ranging from 3.7 to 5.0 percent). For the visual 
arts specialists survey, item nonresponse ranged 
from to 3 percent. Seven items from the self- 
contained classroom teacher survey had item 
nonresponse rates above 3 percent (ranging from 
5.4 to 15.6 percent). All items above 3 percent 
item nonresponse dealt with the extent to which 
teachers felt that participating in specific 
professional development activities improved their 
teaching. 



Sampling and Nonsampling Errors 

The responses to the five surveys were weighted to 
produce national estimates (see tables A-l through 
A-5). The weights were designed to adjust for the 
variable probabilities of selection and differential 
nonresponse. The findings in this report are 
estimates based on the samples selected and, 
consequently, are subject to sampling variability. 



A-7 



Table A-l. — Number and percentage distribution of all regular public elementary schools in the 

study, and the estimated number and percentage distribution in the nation, by school 
characteristics: Fall 1999 





School sample 


National estimate 


School characteristic 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 



All public elementary schools 640 100 52,926 100 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 105 17 14,609 28 

300 to 599 323 51 25,366 48 

600 or more 207 33 12,616 24 

v 

Locale 

City 194 30 15,340 29 

Urban fringe 234 37 18,303 35 

Town 80 13 6,832 13 

Rural 132 21 12,450 24 

Region 

Northeast 127 20 10,361 20 

Southeast 154 24 11,008 21 

Central 161 25 14,612 28 

West 198 31 16,944 32 

Percent minority enrollment in school 

5 percent or less 162 25 14,760 28 

6 to 20 percent 156 24 12,990 25 

21to50percent 136 21 11,008 21 

More than 50 percent 183 29 13,827 26 

Percent of public school students 

eligible for free or reduced-price school lunch 

Less than 35 percent 251 41 21,112 42 

35 to 49 percent 94 15 7,883 16 

50 to 74 percent 132 22 11,225 22 

75 percent or more 137 22 10,583 21 

NOTE: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding and because there were missing data for some school characteristics, ranging from no 
missing data for locale and region, 3 missing cases for percent minority enrollment, 5 missing cases for school enrollment size, to 26 missing 
cases for poverty concentration. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education, Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



A-8 






Table A-2. — Number and percentage distribution of all regular public secondary schools in the 
study, and the estimated number and percentage distribution in the nation, by school 
characteristics: Fall 1999 



School characteristic 


School sample 


National estimate 


Number Percent 


Number Percent 



All public secondary schools 686 100 28,332 100 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 115 17 8,682 31 

400 to 999 301 45 12,222 44 

1,000 or more 260 38 6,996 25 

Locale 

City 182 27 6,205 22 

Urban fringe 250 36 8,824 31 

Town 103 15 4,332 15 

Rural 151 22 8,971 32 

Region 

Northeast 119 17 4,746 17 

Southeast 162 24 6,187 22 

Central 190 28 8,596 30 

West 215 31 8,803 31 

Percent minority enrollment in school 

5 percent or less 187 28 9,275 33 

6to20percent 171 25 6,597 24 

21 to 50 percent 160 24 5,879 21 

More than 50 percent 162 24 6,232 22 

Percent of public school students 

eligible for free or reduced-price school lunch 

Less than 35 percent 372 59 14,872 56 

35 to 49 percent 99 16 4,432 17 

50 to 74 percent 114 18 5,004 19 

75 percent or more 49 7 2,068 8 

NOTE: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding and because there were missing data for some school characteristics, ranging from no 
missing data for locale and region, 6 missing cases for percent minority enrollment, 10 missing cases for school enrollment size, to 52 missing 
cases for poverty concentration. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education, Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



A-9 



Table A-3.— Number and percentage distribution of all regular public elementary school music 
specialists in the study, and the estimated number and percentage distribution in the 
nation, by school characteristics; Spring 2000 



School characteristic 



Teacher sample 



Number 



Percent 



National estimate 



Number 



Percent 



All public elementary teachers 453 100 70,706 100 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 70 16 16,602 24 

300 to 599 234 53 34,481 50 

600 or more 136 31 18,045 26 

Locale 

City 123 28 18,891 27 

Urban fringe 162 37 26,713 39 

Town 57 13 8,473 12 

Rural 99 22 15,116 22 

Region 

Northeast 95 22 17,896 26 

Southeast 105 24 10,668 15 

Central 123 28 22,521 33 

West 118 27 18,108 26 

Percent minority enrollment in school 

5 percent or less 130 30 22,013 32 

6 to 20 percent 109 25 19,453 28 

21to50percent 91 21 14,299 21 

More than 50 percent 109 25 13,147 19 

Percent of public school students 

eligible for free or reduced-price school lunch 

Less than 35 percent 192 45 35,297 53 

35 to 49 percent 73 17 11,071 17 

50 to 74 percent 80 19 10,710 16 

75 percent or more 78 18 9,483 14 

NOTE: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding and because there were missing data for some school characteristics, ranging from 12 
missing cases for locale and region, 13 missing cases for school enrollment size, 14 missing cases for percent minority enrollment, to 30 missing 
cases for poverty concentration. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education, Fall 1999," FRSS 77. 



A-10 



Table A-4. — Number and percentage distribution of regular public elementary school visual arts 
specialists in the study, and the estimated number and percentage distribution in the 
nation, by school characteristics: Spring 2000 



School characteristic 


Teacher sample 


National estimate 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 



All public elementary schools 331 100 37,836 100 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 53 16 9,300 25 

300 to 599 169 52 18,302 49 

600 or more 103 32 9,494 26 

Locale 

City 90 28 9,792 26 

Urban fringe 133 41 15,312 41 

Town 32 10 4,009 11 

Rural 71 22 8,050 22 

Region 

Northeast 96 29 11,339 31 

Southeast 80 25 7,699 22 

Central 98 30 11,608 31 

West 52 16 6,518 18 

Percent minority enrollment in school 

5 percent or less 104 32 12,947 35 

6to20percent 88 27 9,967 27 

21 to50percent 65 20 7,076 19 

More than 50 percent 69 21 7,174 19 

Percent of public school students eligible 
for free or reduced-price school lunch 

Less than 35 percent 156 50 18,447 52 

35 to 49 percent 47 14 4,884 14 

50 to 74 percent 57 18 6,446 18 

75 percent or more 54 17 5,555 16 

NOTE: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding and because there were missing data for some school characteristics, ranging from 5 
missing cases for locale, region, and percent minority enrollment and 6 missing cases for school enrollment size, to 17 missing cases for poverty 
concentration. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education, Fall 1999," FRSS 77. 



A-ll 



Table A-5. — Number and percentage distribution of all regular public elementary school self- 
contained classroom teachers in the study, and the estimated number and percentage 
distribution in the nation, by school characteristics: Spring 2000 



School characteristic 



Teacher sample 



Number 



Percent 



National estimate 



Number 



Percent 



All public elementary schools 497 100 921,924 100 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 84 18 126,654 14 

300 to 599 246 51 420,806 48 

600ormore 148 31 331,358 38 

Locale 

City 134 28 260,003 29 

Urban fringe 181 38 356,736 40 

Town 63 13 111,974 13 

Rural 103 21 156,807 18 

Region 

Northeast 95 20 175,172 20 

Southeast 120 25 225,874 26 

Central 126 26 199,082 22 

West 140 29 285,391 32 

Percent minority enrollment in school 

5 percent or less ... 132 28 216,901 25 

6 to 20 percent 118 25 227,365 26 

21 to 50 percent 103 22 195,405 22 

More than 50 percent 125 26 240,592 27 

Percent of public school students 

eligible for free or reduced-price school lunch 

Less than 35 percent 196 42 370,253 44 

35to49percent 73 16 125,611 15 

50 to 74 percent 95 21 167,949 20 

75 percent or more 98 21 184,137 22 

NOTE: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding and because there were missing data for some school characteristics, ranging from 12 
missing cases for locale and region, to 19 missing cases for school enrollment size and percent minority enrollment, to 35 missing cases for 
poverty concentration. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education, Fall 1999," FRSS 77. 



A-12 



The survey estimates are also subject to 
nonsampling errors that can arise because of 
nonobservation (nonresponse or noncoverage) 
errors, errors of reporting, and errors made in data 
collection. These errors can sometimes bias the 
data. Nonsampling errors may include such 
problems as misrecording of responses; incorrect 
editing, coding, and data entry; differences related 
to the particular time the survey was conducted; or 
errors in data preparation. While general sampling 
theory can be used in part to determine how to 
estimate the sampling variability of a statistic, 
nonsampling errors are not easy to measure and, 
for measurement purposes, usually require that an 
experiment be conducted as part of the data 
collection procedures or that data external to the 
study be used. 

To minimize the potential for nonsampling errors, 
the questionnaires were pretested with respondents 
like those who completed the survey. During the 
design of the surveys and the survey pretests, an 
effort was made to check for consistency of 
interpretation of questions and to eliminate 
ambiguous items. The questionnaires and 
instructions were extensively reviewed by the 
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES); 
the Office of Educational Research and 
Improvement (OERI), U.S. Department of 
Education; and the National Endowment for the 
Arts (NEA). Manual and machine editing of the 
questionnaire responses were conducted to check 
the data for accuracy and consistency. Cases with 
missing or inconsistent items were recontacted by 
telephone. Data were keyed with 100 percent 
verification. 



Variances 

The standard error is a measure of the variability 
of estimates due to sampling. It indicates the 
variability of a sample estimate that would be 
obtained from all possible samples of a given 
design and size. Standard errors are used as a 
measure of the precision expected from a 
particular sample. If all possible samples were 
surveyed under similar conditions, intervals of 
1 .96 standard errors below to 1 .96 standard errors 
above a particular statistic would include the true 



population parameter being estimated in about 95 
percent of the samples. This is a 95 percent 
confidence interval. For example, the estimated 
percentage of music specialists who reported that 
music was included in other academic subjects 
was 47.2, and the estimated standard error was 2.8. 
The 95 percent confidence interval for the statistic 
extends from [47.2— (2.8 times 1.96)] to [47.2 + 
(2.8 times 1.96)], or from 41.7 to 52.7 percent. 
Tables of standard errors for each table and figure 
in the report are provided in appendix B. 

Estimates of standard errors were computed using 
a technique known as jackknife replication. As 
with any replication method, jackknife replication 
involves constructing a number of subsamples 
(replicates) from the full sample and computing 
the statistic of interest for each replicate. The 
mean square error of the replicate estimates 
around the full sample estimate provides an 
estimate of the variances of the statistics. To 
construct the replications, 50 stratified subsamples 
of the full sample were created and then dropped 
one at a time to define 50 jackknife replicates. A 
computer program (WesVar4.0) was used to 
calculate the estimates of standard errors. 
WesVar4.0 is a stand-alone Windows application 
that computes sampling errors for a wide variety 
of statistics (totals, percents, ratios, log-odds 
ratios, general functions of estimates in tables, 
linear regression parameters, and logistic 
regression parameters). 

The test statistics used in the analysis were 
calculated using the jackknife variances and thus 
appropriately reflected the complex nature of the 
sample design. In particular, an adjusted chi- 
square test using Satterthwaite's approximation to 
the design effect was used in the analysis of the 
two-way tables. Finally, Bonferroni adjustments 
were made to control for multiple comparisons 
where appropriate. For example, for an 
"experiment-wise" comparison involving g 
pairwise comparisons, each difference was tested 
at the 0.05/g significance level to control for the 
fact that g differences were simultaneously tested. 
The Bonferroni adjustment results in a more 
conservative critical value being used when 
judging statistical significance. This means that 
comparisons that would have been significant with 
a critical value of 1 .96 may not be significant with 



A-13 



the more conservative critical value. For example, 
the critical value for comparisons between any two 
of the four categories of poverty concentration is 
2.64, rather than 1 .96. This means that there must 
be a larger difference between the estimates being 
compared for there to be a statistically significant 
difference. 



Town — an incorporated place not within 
an MSA, with a population of greater 
than or equal to 2,500. 

Rural — any incorporated place with a 
population density of less than 1,000 per 
square mile and designated as rural by 
the Census Bureau. 



Definitions of Analysis Variables 

School instructional level — Schools were 
classified according to their grade span in the 
1997-98 Common Core of Data (CCD) frame: 

Elementary school — had grade 6 or 
lower and no grade higher than grade 8. 

Secondary school — had no grade lower 
than grade 7 and had grade 7 or higher. 



School enrollment size for the elementary 
school survey and the teacher surveys — total 
number of students enrolled on October 1, 1999, 
based on responses to question 17A on the 
elementary school survey: 

Less than 300 students 

300 to 599 students 

600 or more students 

School enrollment size for secondary school 
survey — total number of students enrolled on 
October 1, 1999, based on responses to question 
21 A on the secondary school survey: 

Less than 400 students 

400 to 999 students 

1,000 or more students 

Locale — as defined in the CCD: 

City — a large or mid-size central city of 
a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). 

Urban Fringe — a place within an MSA 
of a central city, but not primarily its 
central city, and defined as urban by the 
Census Bureau. 



Geographic region: 

Northeast — Connecticut, Delaware, 
District of Columbia, Maine Maryland, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New 
Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode 
Island, and Vermont. 

Southeast — Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, 
Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, 

Mississippi, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West 
Virginia. 

Central — Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, 
Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, 
Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South 
Dakota, and Wisconsin. 

West — Alaska, Arizona, California, 
Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, 
Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, 
Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, and 
Wyoming. 

Percent minority enrollment — The percent of 
students enrolled in the school whose race or 
ethnicity is classified as one of the following: 
American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or 
Pacific Islander, Black non-Hispanic, or Hispanic, 
based on data in the 1997-98 CCD. 

5 percent or less 

6 to 20 percent 
21 to 50 percent 
More than 50 percent 

Percent of students at the school eligible for 
free or reduced-price lunch — This was based on 
responses to question 19 on the elementary school 
survey and question 23 on the secondary school 
survey; if it was missing from the questionnaire, it 



A-14 



was obtained from the 1997-98 CCD frame. This 
item served as the measurement of the 
concentration of poverty at the school. 

Less than 35 percent 

35 to 49 percent 

50 to 74 percent 

75 percent or more 

It is important to note that some of the school 
characteristics used for independent analyses may 
also be related to each other. For example, 
enrollment size and locale are related, with large 
schools tending to be in cities, and small schools 
tending to be in towns and rural areas. Similarly, 
poverty concentration and minority enrollment are 
related, with schools with a high minority 
enrollment also more likely to have a high 
concentration of poverty. Other relationships 
between analysis variables may exist. Because of 
the relatively small samples used in this study, it is 
difficult to separate the independent effects of 
these variables. Their existence, however, should 
be considered in the interpretation of the data 
presented in this report. 



Comparisons with the 1994 
Arts Education Study 

The National Center for Education Statistics 
conducted a school-level study in 1994 on arts 
education in public elementary and secondary 
schools, using the Fast Response Survey System 
(see appendix C for 1994 survey questionnaires). 
Although many of the questions on the 1999 
elementary and secondary surveys asked for 
similar information as the 1994 surveys, the 
wording or organization of the questions differed 
to the extent that direct comparisons were not 
possible in this report. 

The questions in the surveys were changed for 
several reasons. First, some items in the 1999 
surveys were changed to model the arts 
assessment items of the 1997 National Assessment 
of Educational Progress (NAEP). Second, more 
space was available in the 1999 surveys, which 



allowed for certain questions to be elaborated 
upon, thereby making them more complex, but 
less comparable. Lastly, some of the 1994 
questionnaire items contained limitations or 
wording problems that required that those 
questions be altered. 

Although most items were not comparable across 
survey years, two were determined to be 
comparable between the 1994 and 1999 
elementary questionnaires, and three were 
comparable between the 1 994 and 1 999 secondary 
questionnaires. The first comparable items 
between the 1994 and 1999 elementary surveys 
concerned whether schools had district-level 
curriculum guides in music and visual arts. No 
change was found between 1994 and 1999 in the 
percentage of elementary schools that indicated 
that their districts provided curriculum guides. 
Eighty-two percent of schools reported the 
availability of curriculum guides for music in 
1994, as did 81 percent in 1999 (not shown in 
tables). In both 1994 and 1999, 78 percent of 
elementary schools reported curriculum guides for 
visual arts, also showing no change. The second 
comparison involved whether the district had a 
curriculum specialist or program coordinator in the 
arts. The percentage of schools with a district- 
level curriculum specialist or program coordinator 
in the arts increased from 38 percent in 1994 to 56 
percent in 1999 (not shown in tables). 

There were three possible comparisons for the 
1994 and 1999 secondary surveys. The first 
concerned the number of different courses that 
schools offered in the arts. In 1994, the mean 
number of music courses offered to secondary 
school students was 4.5; however, in 1999 the data 
show an increase in the number of courses to a 
mean of 5.0. For the other three comparable 
subjects, visual arts, dance, and drama/theater, 
schools offered comparable numbers of courses 
between the 2 survey years. For visual arts the 
mean number of courses was 4.7 in 1994 and 5.0 
in 1999 (not shown in tables). In 1994, the mean 
number of courses offered in both dance and 
drama/theater was 2.1, and in 1999, the mean 
number was 2.2 for dance and 2.3 for 
drama/theater. 



A-15 



As with elementary schools, the availability of 
district-level curriculum guides in public 
secondary schools offering music and visual arts 
instruction did not change between 1994 and 1999. 
In 1 994, 82 percent of secondary schools reported 
that their district provided curriculum guides in 
music, and 83 reported curriculum guides for 
visual arts. In 1999, 86 percent of schools had 
curriculum guides for music and 87 percent had 
them for visual arts (not shown in tables). The 
availability of a district curriculum guide for 
schools that offered dance and drama/theatre also 
remained unchanged in secondary schools 
(66 percent in 1994 and 68 percent in 1999 for 
dance, and 75 percent in both years for 
drama/theatre). Lastly, there was an increase in 
the number of school principals reporting having a 
district-level curriculum specialist or program 
coordinator in the arts, 36 percent in 1994 to 53 
percent in 1999 (not shown in tables). 



Background Information 

The survey was performed by Westat, using the 
FRSS, under contract to the NCES. Westat's 
project director was Elizabeth Farris, and the 
survey manager was Nancy Carey. The operations 
manager was Debbie Alexander, and the research 
assistant for the project was Rebecca Porch. 
Shelley Burns was the NCES Project Officer. The 
data were requested by the National Endowment 
for the Arts (NEA) and the Office of Educational 
Research and Improvement (OERI), U.S. 
Department of Education. 

This report was reviewed by the following 
individuals: 

Outside NCES 

• Stephanie Cronen, American Institutes for 
Research 

• Michael Day, Professor, Department of Visual 
Arts, Brigham Young University 

• Lawrence Lanahan, American Institutes for 
Research 



Scott C. Shuler, Arts Consultant, Bureau of 
Curriculum and Instruction, Connecticut State 
Department of Education 

Carol F. Stole, Vice President, Council for 
Basic Education, and Director, Schools 
Around the World 



Inside NCES 

• Kerry Gruber, Elementary/Secondary and 
Libraries Studies Division 

• Bill Hussar, Early Childhood, International, 
and Crosscutting Studies Division 

• Edith McArthur, Early Childhood, 
International, and Crosscutting Studies 
Division 

c Marilyn McMillen Seastrom, Chief 
Statistician 

• Valena Plisko, Associate Commissioner, Early 
Childhood, International, and Crosscutting 
Studies Division 

• John Ralph, Early Childhood, International, 
and Crosscutting Studies Division 

• Bruce Taylor, Office of the Deputy 
Commissioner 

• Sheida White, NAEP Development and 
Operations- Assessment Division 



For more information about the FRSS or the 
surveys on arts education, contact Shelley Burns, 
Early Childhood, International, and Crosscutting 
Studies Division, National Center for Education 
Statistics, Office of Educational Research and 
Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, 
1990 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20006, e- 
mail: Shelley.Burns@ed.gov, telephone (202) 502- 
73 1 9. This report and other NCES reports are also 
available on the NCES Web Site at 
http://nces.ed.gov . 



A-16 



Appendix B 
Tables of Standard Errors 



B-l 



B-2 



Table of Contents 

Tables of Standard Errors 

Table Page 

B- 1 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools offering instruction 

in various arts subjects, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-9 

B-2 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary schools 

offering music instruction indicating how frequently a typical student received 

instruction designated specifically for music, and average number of minutes 

per class period, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-10 

B-3 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary schools 

offering music instruction, according to the total number of hours that a typical 

student received instruction during the school year, and average hours per 

school year, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-l 1 

B-4 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools offering music 
instruction, according to the position of the person(s) who provided the 
instruction, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-l 2 

B-5 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary schools 

offering music instruction, according to the space used for teaching the subject, 

by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-13 

B-6 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools offering music 

instruction, according to the availability of a district curriculum guide in music, 

by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-14 

B-7 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools reporting various 
kinds of music instruction, by the earliest grade at which the instruction was 
offered and the percent of students enrolled: Academic year 1998-99 B-15 

B-8 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary schools 
offering visual arts instruction indicating how frequently a typical student 
received instruction designated specifically for visual arts, and average number 
of minutes per class period, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999— 
2000 B-16 

B-9 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary schools 
offering visual arts instruction, according to the total number of hours that a 
typical student received instruction during the school year, and average hours 
per school year, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-l 7 

B-10 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools offering visual arts 
instruction, according to the position of the person(s) who provided the 
instruction, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-l 8 



B-3 



Table of Contents (continued) 

Tables of Standard Errors (continued) 

Table Page 

B- 1 1 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary schools 
offering visual arts instruction, according to the space used for teaching the 
subject, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-19 

B- 1 2 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools offering visual arts 
instruction, according to the availability of a district curriculum guide in visual 
arts, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-20 

B- 1 3 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools offering instruction 
in dance and drama/theatre, by various program characteristics: Academic 
year 1999-2000 B-21 

B- 1 4 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools that sponsored 
various supplemental arts education programs, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1998-99 B-22 

B- 1 5 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools that used various 
funding sources for supplemental arts education programs: Academic year 
1998-99 B-23 

B-16 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools in which arts 

education was included in the mission statement or school improvement plan, 

or that were engaged in some reform initiative involving the arts, by school 

characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-24 

B- 1 7 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools indicating that arts 
specialists have input in selected management issues related to arts instruction, 
by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-25 

B-18 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools indicating various 
ways that arts programs and instruction are assessed, and the presence of a 
district-level arts coordinator, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999— 
2000 B-26 

B- 1 9 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary school respondents 

indicating the extent to which they believe individuals at the school and parents 

consider the arts an essential part of a high-quality education, by school 

characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-27 

B-20 Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools offering instruction 

in various arts subjects, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-28 

B-2 1 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public secondary schools 

offering music instruction, according to the number of different music courses 

taught, by school characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 B-29 



B-4 



Table of Contents (continued) 

Tables of Standard Errors (continued) 

Table Page 

B-22 Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools offering music 
instruction and reporting two or more full-time teachers on staff who taught 
music courses, by school characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 B-30 

B-23 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public secondary schools 

offering music instruction, according to the space used for teaching the subject, 

by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-31 

B-24 Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools offering music 
instruction and receiving funds from non-district sources to fund the music 
program, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-32 

B-25 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public secondary schools 

offering visual arts instruction, according to the number of different visual arts 

courses taught, by school characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 B-33 

B-26 Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools offering visual arts 
instruction and reporting two or more full-time teachers on staff who taught 
visual arts courses, by school characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 B-34 

B-27 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public secondary schools 
offering visual arts instruction, according to the space used for teaching the 
subject, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-35 

B-28 Standard errors of the percent and percentage distribution of public secondary 
schools offering dance and drama/theatre instruction, by various program 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-36 

B-29 Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools that sponsored 
various supplemental arts education programs, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1998-99 B-37 

B-30 Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools that used various 
funding sources for supplemental arts education programs: Academic year 
1998-99 B-38 

B-3 1 Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools in which arts 

education was included in the mission statement or school improvement plan, 

or that were engaged in some reform initiative involving the arts, by school 

characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-39 

B-32 Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools indicating that arts 
specialists have input in selected management issues related to arts instruction, 
by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 B-40 



B-5 



Table of Contents (continued) 

Tables of Standard Errors (continued) 

Table Page 

B-33 Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools indicating various 
ways that arts programs and instruction are assessed, and the presence of a 
district-level arts coordinator, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999- 
2000 B-41 

B-34 Standard error of the percent of public secondary school respondents indicating 
the extent to which they believe individuals at the school and parents consider 
the arts an essential part of a high-quality education, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 B-42 

B-35 Standard errors of the number and percent of music specialists, visual arts 

specialists, and classroom teachers in public elementary schools, by teaching 

status: Academic year 1999-2000 B-43 

B-36 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school 

music specialists, visual arts specialists, and classroom teachers indicating their 

number of years of teaching experience, both overall and in-field: Academic 

year 1999-2000 B-44 

B-3 7 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school 

music specialists, visual arts specialists, and classroom teachers indicating the 

number of years they plan to continue teaching: Academic year 1999-2000 B-45 

B-3 8 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary school music specialists, 
visual arts specialists, and classroom teachers, by degree held: Academic year 
1999-2000 B-46 

B-3 9 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary school music and visual 
arts specialists with a degree in-field and who majored in various fields of 
study for a bachelor's or master's degree: Academic year 1999-2000 B-47 

B-40 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary school music specialists, 
visual arts specialists, and classroom teachers, by the types of teaching 
certificates held: Academic year 1999-2000 B-48 

B-4 1 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary school music specialists, 
visual arts specialists, and classroom teachers indicating the number of hours 
spent in various professional development activities in the last 12 months, by 
content area: Academic year 1999-2000 B-49 

B-42 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school 

music and visual arts specialists, by the number of schools at which they teach: 

Academic year 1999-2000 B-50 



B-6 



Table of Contents (continued) 

Tables of Standard Errors (continued) 

Table v Page 

B-43 Standard errors of the means for various indicators of teaching load for public 

elementary school music and visual arts specialists: Academic year 1999-2000 B-51 

B-44 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school 

music and visual arts specialists indicating how adequate are various aspects of 

their schools' arts programs in support of their instruction: Academic year 

1999-2000 B-52 

B-45 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school 

music and visual arts specialists reporting frequency of participation in various 

collaborative activities related to arts instruction within the last 12 months: 

Academic year 1999-2000 B-53 

B-46 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school 
music specialists, visual arts specialists, and classroom teachers reporting 
frequency of participation in various collaborative activities related to teaching 
within the last 12 months: Academic year 1999-2000 B-54 

B-47 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school 

music and visual arts specialists indicating the degree to which they agree with 

various statements about how instruction in music and visual arts is valued at 

their schools: Academic year 1999-2000 B-55 

B-48 Standard errors of the percent of public elementary school music specialists, 
visual arts specialists, and classroom teachers reporting various characteristics 
of the arts curriculum that is taught at their schools: Academic year 1999-2000 B-56 

B-49 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school 

classroom teachers, according to the extent to which they included the arts in 

their instruction, by type of activity: Academic year 1999-2000 B-57 

B-50 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school 

music specialists reporting the degree to which they emphasize various goals or 

objectives of student learning: Academic year 1999-2000 B-58 

B-5 1 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school 
visual arts specialists reporting the degree to which they emphasize various 
goals or objectives of student learning: Academic year 1999-2000 B-59 

B-52 Standard errors of the percentage distributions of public elementary school 
music specialists, visual arts specialists, and classroom teachers reporting the 
extent to which they use various types of assessments in their arts instruction: 
Academic year 1999-2000 B-60 



B-7 



Table of Contents (continued) 

Tables of Standard Errors (continued) 

Table Page 

B-53 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary music 

specialists reporting the extent to which they participate in various activities 

related to music outside of their regular school duties, by type of activity: 

Academic year 1999-2000 B-61 

B-54 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary visual arts 
specialists reporting the extent to which they participate in activities related to 
visual arts outside of school duties, by type of activity: Academic year 1999- 
2000 B-62 

B-55 Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary classroom 
teachers reporting the extent to which they participate in activities related to the 
arts outside of school duties, by type of activity: Academic year 1999-2000 B-63 

Tables of Standard Errors for Figures and Data not Shown in Tables 

B-56 Standard errors for chapter 2 figures and data not shown in tables: Academic 

years 1998-99 and 1999-2000 B-64 

B-57 Standard errors for chapter 3 figures and data not shown in tables: Academic 

years 1998-99 and 1999-2000 B-66 

B-58 Standard errors for chapter 4 figures and data not shown in tables: Academic 

years 1998-99 and 1999-2000 B-68 









B-8 



Table B-l. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools offering instruction in 
various arts subjects, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Music 



Visual arts 



Dance 



Drama/theatre 



All public elementary schools 1.0 1.4 1.5 1.6 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 2.0 2.9 4.1 4.0 

300to599 1.4 1.9 1.8 1.7 

600 or more 1.8 2.6 3.0 3.4 

Locale 

City 1.5 2.6 3.1 3.3 

Urban fringe 1.7 2.1 2.4 2.7 

Town..... 2.4 4.1 5.0 4.7 

Rural 2.5 3.3 3.7 3.5 

Region 

Northeast 2.3 2.2 4.0 2.7 

Southeast 2.0 3.2 3.8 3.8 

Central 1.5 2.5 2.5 2.4 

West 2.3 3.2 3.5 3.4 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 1.7 2.2 3.2 2.8 

6 to 20 percent 1.5 2.8 2.7 3.0 

21 to 50 percent 2.0 3.6 3.0 3.5 

More than 50 percent 3.0 2.9 3.6 3.6 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 percent 1.0 1.5 2.4 2.7 

35 to 49 percent 1.3 4.6 4.0 3.6 

50 to 74 percent 2.0 2.8 4.0 3.9 

75 percent or more 3^5 3J> 3^ 32 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-9 



Table B-2. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering 
music instruction indicating how frequently a typical student received instruction 
designated specifically for music, and average number of minutes per class period, by 
school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Frequency of instruction 



Every day 



3 to 4 
times a week 



1 to 2 
times a week 



Less than once 
a week 



Average number 

of minutes per 

class period 



All public elementary schools 1.2 1.6 1.9 1.1 0.4 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 3.5 3.9 4.9 2.9 1.0 

300 to 599 1.1 2.1 2.3 1.3 0.5 

600ormore 1.5 2.3 3.7 2.6 0.8 

Locale 

City 1.2 2.6 3.2 1.8 0.8 

Urban fringe 1.6 2.4 3.2 2.0 0.6 

Town 4.7 5.2 6.0 4.3 1.3 

Rural 2.5 3.4 4.0 2.0 1.1 

Region 

Northeast 1.8 3.1 3.8 2.1 0.6 

Southeast 1.4 3.1 3.8 2.5 0.8 

Central 2.1 3.3 3.8 1.2 0.8 

West 3.2 2.7 4.1 2.4 0.8 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 2.4 2.7 3.8 2.0 0.9 

6 to 20 percent 2.3 3.4 3.9 2.2 0.8 

21 to 50 percent 3.2 2.9 4.2 2.1 0.9 

More than 50 percent 1.5 2.9 3.9 2.8 0.7 

Percent of students eligible for free or 
reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 1.8 2.8 3.4 1.8 0.7 

35 to 49 percent 3.0 3.4 4.5 2.4 1.3 

50 to 74 percent 2.3 4.1 4.7 2.7 0.8 

75 percent or more 2.8 2.6 4.2 3.4 0.9 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-10 



Table B-3. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering 
music instruction, according to the total number of hours that a typical student 
received instruction during the school year, and average hours per school year, by 
school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Percent of schools with 



25 hours 

or less per 

year 



26 to 40 

hours per 

year 



41 to 50 

hours per 

year 



More than 50 

hours per 

year 



Average hours per 
school year 



All public elementary schools 1.5 2.3 1.8 1.6 1.2 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 3.6 5.3 4.3 4.8 2.8 

300 to 599 1.9 2.8 2.5 2.2 1.5 

600 or more 3.2 3.3 3.7 2.9 2.3 

Locale 

City 3.2 4.1 3.5 3.1 2.4 

Urban fringe 2.3 3.8 2.5 3.1 2.1 

Town 4.9 5.6 5.1 5.9 4.1 

Rural 3.2 4.9 3.4 4.3 2.7 

Region 

Northeast 2.4 5.0 4.7 3.3 2.3 

Southeast 2.8 4.3 3.3 3.6 2.7 

Central 3.4 4.1 3.5 3.9 2.3 

West 3.2 3.8 3.5 3.5 2.6 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 3.6 4.4 3.0 3.9 2.4 

6 to 20 percent 2.3 3.6 3.4 3.9 2.4 

21 to 50 percent 2.7 5.0 3.8 4.1 2.6 

More than 50 percent 3.4 3.9 3.3 3.3 2.6 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 percent 2.6 3.4 2.6 3.2 2.0 

35 to 49 percent 3.6 5.3 3.7 4.3 2.8 

50 to 74 percent 3.4 5.6 4.1 4.5 2.9 

75 percent or more 3.5 4A 3_9 3_9 2J5 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-ll 



Table B-4. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools offering music instruction, 
according to the position of the person(s) who provided the instruction, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Full-time 

certified music 

specialist 



Part-time 

certified music 

specialist 



Classroom 
teacher 



Artist-in- 
residence 



Other faculty 
or volunteers 



All public elementary schools 2.1 2.0 1.4 0.9 0.9 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 5.3 4.5 3.6 1.0 2.5 

300 to 599 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.2 1.0 

600 or more ...._ 2.9 3.0 2.1 1.9 1.5 

Locale 

City 3.7 3.5 2.7 1.6 1.4 

Urban fringe 3.3 2.5 2.0 1.4 1.5 

Town 6.0 4.9 3.8 1.3 3.0 

Rural 4.9 4.3 3.2 1.5 2.2 

Region 

Northeast 4.9 4.7 1.2 1.8 0.7 

Southeast 3.8 3.9 2.2 1.8 2.0 

Central 3.5 3.7 1.2 0.5 1.3 

West 3.9 3.5 3.4 1.5 2.3 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 4.7 4.0 2.6 1.4 1.9 

6 to 20 percent 4.3 3.7 3.3 1.6 1.5 

21 to 50 percent 3.8 3.2 2.9 1.3 0.8 

More than 50 percent 4.1 3.4 2.5 . 1.3 2.4 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 percent 3.3 3.0 2.4 1.5 1.3 

35 to 49 percent 5.7 3.9 3.7 2.4 2.9 

50 to 74 percent 4.6 4.5 3.5 0.5 2.5 

75 percent or more 4.5 4.2 2.4 1.1 2.2 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-12 



Table B-5. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering 
music instruction, according to the space used for teaching the subject, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Dedicated 

room(s), with 

special equipment 



Dedicated 

room(s), no 

special equipment 



Gymnasium, 

auditorium, or 

cafeteria 



Regular 
classrooms only 



All public elementary schools 2.1 1.1 1.2 1.5 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 5.3 2.7 3.7 4.1 

300to599 2.7 1.5 1.6 2.0 

600 or more 2.9 1.7 2.0 2.3 

Locale 

City 3.7 2.2 2.3 3.2 

Urban fringe 3.4 1.2 1.9 2.3 

Town 6.6 2.3 4.2 5.4 

Rural 4.7 2.9 2.9 3.4 

Region 

Northeast 5.0 2.7 3.4 3.8 

Southeast 4.1 2.6 2.8 3.6 

Central 4.1 2.2 2.3 3.8 

West 3.7 1.4 2.9 2.8 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 4.2 2.1 1.9 3.7 

6 to 20 percent 4.5 2.3 2.4 3.6 

21 to 50 percent 3.5 1.8 3.5 2.4 

More than 50 percent 4.4 2.9 3.0 2.9 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 percent 3.6 2.0 1.7 2.9 

35 to 49 percent 5.3 3.5 4.1 3.5 

50 to 74 percent 4.8 1.3 3.0 3.6 

75 percent or more 5.3 3.8 3.4 3.9 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-13 



Table B-6. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools offering music instruction, 
according to the availability of a district curriculum guide in music, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



District curriculum guide in music 



All public elementary schools 1.7 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 4.3 

300 to 599 2.4 

600 or more 2.7 

Locale 

City 3.0 

Urban fringe 2.6 

Town 5.1 

Rural 4.9 

Region 

Northeast 2.1 

Southeast 3.8 

Central 3.2 

West 3.5 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 3.1 

6 to 20 percent 3.4 

21 to 50 percent 3.0 

More than 50 percent 3.1 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 2.5 

35 to 49 percent 5.0 

50 to 74 percent 3.5 

75 percent or more 3.6 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-14 



Table B-7. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools reporting various kinds of 
music instruction, by the earliest grade at which the instruction was offered and the 
percent of students enrolled: Academic year 1998-99 



Characteristic of music program 



General music 



Chorus 



Band 



Strings/orchestra 



All public elementary schools 1.5 1.8 2.2 1.7 

Earliest grade offered 

Second and under 1.3 2.7 1.0 1.9 

Third through fourth 1.0 2.8 2.6 4.0 

Fifth and higher 0.9 2.4 2.3 3.8 

Percent of eligible students enrolled 

25 percent or less 0.3 2.7 3.1 4.2 

26 to 50 percent 0.9 2.2 2.7 3.1 

51 to 75 percent 0.6 1.8 2.3 1.7 

More than 75 percent 1.3 2.7 1.5 2.3 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-15 



Table B-8. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering 
visual arts instruction indicating how frequently a typical student received instruction 
designated specifically for visual arts, and average number of minutes per class period, 
by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Frequency of instruction 



Every day 



3 to 4 
times a week 



1 to 2 
times a week 



Less than once a 
week 



Average number 

of minutes per 

class period 



All public elementary schools 0.8 1.2 2.2 1.9 0.4 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 1.9 3.1 4.6 4.0 1.3 

300 to 599 0.8 1.6 2.6 2.3 0.5 

600 or more 1.4 2.1 3.7 3.0 0.8 

Locale 

City 0.9 2.3 4.1 3.5 0.8 

Urban fringe 1.3 1.9 3.1 2.6 0.7 

Town 1.5 3.8 7.0 5.3 1.6 

Rural 2.2 3.0 4.1 2.7 1.1 

Region 

Northeast 1.7 1.8 3.2 2.6 0.7 

Southeast 1.3 3.5 4.8 4.0 0.8 

Central 1.1 2.2 3.5 2.9 0.9 

West 1.7 2.7 4.6 4.1 1.0 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 1.6 2.9 3.8 2.3 0.8 

6 to 20 percent (t) 2.4 4.2 3.2 1.0 

21 to 50 percent 1.8 2.7 4.6 4.9 1.0 

More than 50 percent 1.8 2.7 5.1 4.5 1.0 

Percent of students eligible for free or 

reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 0.9 1.9 2.9 2.2 0.7 

35 to 49 percent 1.4 3.5 5.6 5.5 1.5 

50 to 74 percent 2.1 3.4 5.7 3.8 1.0 

75 percent or more 23 3J 53 54 13 

t Not applicable: estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at or 100 percent. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-16 



Table B-9. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering 
visual arts instruction, according to the total number of hours that a typical student 
received instruction during the school year, and average hours per school year, by 
school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Percent of schools with 



25 hours 
or less per year 



26 to 40 
hours per year 



41 to 50 
hours per year 



More than 50 
hours per year 



Average hours 
per year 



All public elementary schools 2.2 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.4 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 4.1 4.0 4.3 4.4 2.2 

300 to 599 2.4 3.1 3.0 2.0 1.6 

600 or more 3.4 3.3 3.7 3.1 2.2 

Locale 

City 3.9 4.0 3.4 3.3 2.2 

Urban fringe 2.8 3.7 3.7 2.6 2.1 

Town 6.2 6.7 8.0 5.5 3.3 

Rural 3.3 4.4 4.8 5.0 2.5 

Region 

Northeast 2.8 4.6 5.1 3.2 1.8 

Southeast 4.1 5.1 4.0 4.8 2.9 

Central 3.1 3.5 5.0 3.5 1.9 

West 4.2 3.0 3.5 3.6 2.8 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 3.2 4.2 4.6 4.3 2.4 

6 to 20 percent 3.3 4.2 4.6 3.5 1.9 

21 to 50 percent 5.3 4.0 4.5 4.5 2.7 

More than 50 percent 4.8 5.1 4.2 4.4 3.3 

Percent of students eligible for free or 

reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 2.7 3.0 4.1 2.8 1.7 

35 to 49 percent 5.9 5.3 4.8 4.7 2.4 

50 to 74 percent 4.2 5.1 4.7 4.0 2.9 

75 percent or more 5/7 54 44 49 4J) 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-17 



Table B-10. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools offering visual arts 

instruction, according to the position of the person(s) who provided the instruction, 
by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Full-time 
certified visual 
arts specialist 



Part-time 
certified visual 
arts specialist 



Classroom 
teacher 



Artist-in- 
residence 



Other faculty or 
volunteers 



All public elementary schools 2.2 1.8 1.9 0.9 1.0 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 4.8 4.5 5.1 2.1 2.3 

300 to 599 2.8 2.5 2.5 1.2 1.4 

600 or more > 3.8 1.6 3.2 2.1 1.7 

Locale 

City 4.4 3.3 3.1 2.1 2.0 

Urban fringe 3.5 2.6 2.7 1.8 2.1 

Town 8.0 5.7 7.2 2.8 2.8 

Rural 4.4 3.8 4.9 1.5 2.1 

Region 

Northeast 4.4 3.7 2.6 1.2 (t) 

Southeast 5.2 4.4 4.6 1.9 2.3 

Central 4.0 3.3 3.1 1.4 0.9 

West 2.8 3.0 3.8 2.6 2.8 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 4.7 3.7 4.2 1.2 1.7 

6 to 20 percent 4.2 2.8 3.8 2.1 2.6 

21 to 50 percent 4.7 3.6 4.6 3.0 1.6 

More than 50 percent 4.5 2.9 4.2 . 1.6 2.1 

Percent of students eligible for free or 

reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 3.6 2.3 2.4 1.4 1.8 

35 to 49 percent 6.4 4.3 6.1 3.1 2.7 

50 to 74 percent 5.0 5.1 3.9 1.8 2.7 

75 percent or more 5.3 3.8 4.2 2.6 2.2 

t Not applicable: estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at or 100 percent. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-18 



Table B-ll. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering 
visual arts instruction, according to the space used for teaching the subject, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 



School characteristic 



Dedicated 

room(s), with 

special equipment 



Dedicated 

room(s), no 

special equipment 



Gymnasium, 

auditorium, or 

cafeteria 



Regular 
classrooms only 



All public elementary schools 2.3 1.4 0.7 2.2 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 4.8 3.0 2.3 5.0 

300 to 599 3.5 2.4 0.9 2.6 

600 or more 3.6 1.7 0.7 3.3 

Locale 

City 3.7 2.6 0.9 3.4 

Urban fringe 3.8 1.9 0.8 3.8 

Town 5.8 3.1 3.5 6.3 

Rural 4.5 2.9 2.5 4.5 

Region 

Northeast 4.6 2.8 0.7 3.7 

Southeast 4.8 2.9 2.0 4.4 

Central 4.6 2.7 1.8 4.1 

West 4.0 1.9 1.5 4.2 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 4.9 2.6 1.3 4.5 

6 to 20 percent 4.9 2.5 2.5 4.6 

21 to 50 percent 5.1 2.9 0.7 5.3 

More than 50 percent 4.5 2.7 1.1 4.1 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 percent 3.7 1.8 1.3 3.7 

35 to 49 percent 6.9 4.7 4.1 6.4 

50 to 74 percent 4.8 2.0 0.9 4.2 

75 percent or more 4.5 3.6 1.5 4.8 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-19 



Table B-12. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools offering visual arts 

instruction, according to the availability of a district curriculum guide in visual arts, 
by school characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 



School characteristic 



District curriculum guide in visual arts 




All public elementary schools 2.0 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 4.9 

300 to 599 2.4 

600 or more 3.1 

Locale 

City 2.8 

Urban fringe 3.4 

Town 5.5 

Rural 4.4 

Region 

Northeast 3.5 

Southeast 3.8 

Central 3.5 

West 4.0 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 3.6 

6 to 20 percent 3.9 

21 to 50 percent 3.7 

More than 50 percent 3.9 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 2.9 

35 to 49 percent 4.5 

50 to 74 percent 3.5 

75 percent or more 3.7 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-20 



Table B-13.- 



-Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools offering instruction in 
dance and drama/theatre, by various program characteristics: Academic year 1999- 
2000 



Program characteristic 



Dance 



Drama/theatre 



Frequency of instruction 

3 or more times a week 1.2 2.5 

I or 2 times a week 3.8 3.6 

Less than once a week 3.8 3.6 

Mean number of minutes per class 1.2 1.4 

Portion of the school year instruction is offered 

Entire school year 4.8 5.3 

Half the school year 1.6 1.9 

One-quarter of the school year 3.4 3.1 

Less than one-quarter of the school year 4.7 4.9 

Other 2.4 3.7 

Teachers 

Full-time, certified specialist 3.7 3.0 

Part-time, certified specialist 4.3 2.7 

Classroom teacher 5.0 4.2 

Artist-in-residence 3.6 3.3 

Other 4.1 3.8 , 

Space used for instruction 

Dedicated room, with special equipment 2.9 2.9 

Dedicated room, no special equipment 1.9 3.1 

Gymnasium, auditorium, or cafeteria 5.5 4.4 

Regular classrooms only 4.1 4.9 

District written curriculum guide in the subject available 4.8 4.8 

Curriculum guide based on state standards or the National Standards for Arts Education 

Yes 5.9 5.0 

No 4.6 2.8 

Don't know 5.3 4.5 

Funds from non-district sources available for instruction 4.0 4.7 

Percent of program budget coming from non-district sources 

10 percent or less (#) 10.0 

I I to 50 percent (#) 7.8 

More than 50 percent (#) 7.8 

#Too few cases for a reliable estimate. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-21 



Table B-14. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools that sponsored various 
supplemental arts education programs, by school characteristics: Academic year 
1998-99 



School characteristic 



Field trips 

to arts 

performances 



Field trips to 

art galleries or 

museums 



Visiting 
artist(s) 



Artist(s)-in- 
residence 



After-school 
activities that 
incorporate 
the arts 



All public elementary schools 1.7 2.0 1.9 1.9 2.2 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 4.5 5.4 4.6 4.1 5.2 

300 to 599 2.1 2.5 2.2 2.9 2.9 

600 or more 2.3 3.3 3.9 3.6 2.9 

Locale 

City 2.3 3.1 3.7 4.5 3.0 

Urban fringe 2.9 3.1 3.1 2.7 3.8 

Town 6.9 6.0 6.2 4.1 6.4 

Rural 4.4 5.0 4.4 3.2 5.2 

Region 

Northeast 4.5 4.5 4.8 3.7 4.3 

Southeast 3.1 4.9 4.1 3.3 4.3 

Central 3.6 4.4 4.2 3.4 3.6 

West 3.5 3.7 3.2 3.0 4.8 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.1 4.0 

6 to 20 percent 4.0 4.1 3.8 3.9 4.9 

21 to 50 percent 3.6 4.4 4.5 3.9 4.3 

More than 50 percent 3.4 4.2 3.6 3.7 4.2 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 3.0 3.1 2.7 3.2 3.4 

35 to 49 percent 4.1 5.6 5.6 4.2 5.5 

50 to 74 percent 4.2 4.9 5.0 3.7 4.3 

75 percent or more 4.3 4.7 5.1 3.8 4.4 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-22 



Table B-15. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools that used various funding 
sources for supplemental arts education programs: Academic year 1998-99 



Supplemental arts program 



Percent 

sponsoring 

program 



Source of funding 



General school 
or district funds 



Parent 
groups 



State or local 
arts agency 



State or federal 
education grant 



Field trips to arts performances 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.1 1.2 

Field trips to art galleries or museums 2.0 2.4 2.3 1.8 1.3 

Visiting artist(s) 1.9 3.4 3.5 3.4 2.6 

Artist(s)-in-residence 1.9 5.1 5.3 3.9 3.8 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-23 



Table B-16. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools in which arts education 
was included in the mission statement or school improvement plan, or that were 
engaged in some reform initiative involving the arts, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Arts education included 

in mission statement 

or school improvement plan 



School reform 

initiatives related to arts education 

or the integration of the arts with 

other academic subjects 



All public elementary schools 2.2 2.4 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 4.9 5.0 

300 to 599 2.5 2.9 

600 or more 3.6 3.8 

Locale 

City 3.5 3.9 

Urban fringe 3.2 3.2 

Town 5.5 6.0 

Rural 4.1 4.4 

Region 

Northeast 4.8 5.2 

Southeast 4.0 4.4 

Central L. 3.6 4.2 

West 4.0 3.4 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 3.9 3.6 

6 to 20 percent 3.8 4.1 

21 to 50 percent 4.9 5.0 

More than 50 percent 4.3 3.9 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 3.3 3.3 

35 to 49 percent 5.3 5.3 

50 to 74 percent 4.8 4.8 

75 percent or more 5.4 5.1 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-24 



Table B-17. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools indicating that arts 

specialists have input in selected management issues related to arts instruction, by 
school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Site-based 
management/ 

school 

improvement 

teams; leadership 

councils 



Arts curriculum 
offered 



Allocation of 
arts funds 



Hiring of arts 
staff 



All public elementary schools 1.9 2.0 2.3 2.0 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 4.5 4.8 5.2 4.8 

300 to 599 2.5 2.5 2.8 3.0 

600 or more 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.2 

Locale 

City 3.4 3.7 3.8 3.7 

Urban fringe 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.7 

Town 5.7 6.5 6.4 6.3 

Rural 4.4 4.8 5.1 3.8 

Region 

Northeast 3.5 3.3 4.4 4.5 

Southeast 3.9 4.4 4.1 3.5 

Central 3.5 3.8 4.2 4.4 

West 3.7 3.3 4.0 3.2 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 4.0 3.9 4.4 4.4 

6 to 20 percent 4.5 3.9 4.7 4.7 

21 to 50 percent 4.7 3.6 4.4 4.5 

More than 50 percent 4.4 4.2 3.9 3.4 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.0 

35 to 49 percent 5.0 5.3 4.9 5.0 

50 to 74 percent 5.2 4.6 5.0 5.3 

75 percent or more 4.4 4.5 4.4 3.4 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-25 



Table B-18. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary schools indicating various ways 
that arts programs and instruction are assessed, and the presence of a district-level 



arts coorainaior, oy sent 


30i cnaracierisi 


ics: Acaaemicj 


^ear iyyy-zvvu 










School conducts 


District has 




Principal evaluates 


Principal evaluates 


standardized 


specialist or 




arts teachers in the 


the arts program in 


assessment of 


coordinator who is 


School characteristic 


same way other 


the same way 


student 


responsible for the 




teachers are 


other programs are 


achievement 


arts programs 




evaluated 


evaluated 


in the arts 


offered 



All public elementary schools 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.9 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 4.6 4.2 4.0 5.0 

300 to 599 2.0 2.3 2.2 2.3 

600 or more 2.9 2.9 2.5 3.0 

Locale 

City 2.5 2.9 3.3 3.3 

Urban fringe 2.9 3.3 2.7 3.7 

Town 5.0 5.6 4.6 5.3 

Rural 4.4 4.1 3.4 4.2 

Region 

Northeast 3.4 3.0 3.2 4.5 

Southeast 3.3 3.7 3.0 3.3 

Central 2.9 3.3 3.7 4.5 

West 3.9 4.0 1.8 3.6 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 3.6 3.2 3.5 4.4 

6 to 20 percent 3.2 3.9 3.9 3.8 

21 to 50 percent 4.1 3.5 2.7 5.1 

More than 50 percent 4.2 4.0 2.8 3.8 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 2.3 2.8 2.6 3.5 

35 to 49 percent 5.2 5.2 4.7 5.0 

50 to 74 percent 4.2 4.5 2.4 4.7 

75 percent or more 4.0 4.1 3.1 4.7 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-26 



Table B-19. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary school principals indicating the 
extent to which they believe individuals at the school and parents consider the arts an 
essential part of a high-quality education, by school characteristics: Academic year 
1999-2000 





Administrators 


Non-arts teaching staff 


Parents 


School characteristic 

• 


Great 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 


Great 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 


Great 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 



All public elementary schools 1.8 1.8 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.3 

School enrollment size 

Less than 300 4.5 4.6 5.5 5.6 3.8 5.5 

300 to 599 2.3 2.3 2.7 2.5 3.0 2.9 

600 or more 2.6 2.7 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.9 

Locale 

City 4.0 3.1 3.9 3.8 3.3 3.5 

Urban fringe 2.8 2.9 3.4 3.5 3.2 3.2 

Town 4.8 4.9 5.2 5.6 4.4 6.9 

Rural 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.8 

Region 

Northeast 4.7 4.5 5.0 4.7 5.6 5.1 

Southeast 4.3 4.2 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.4 

Central 4.6 3.8 4.7 4.2 4.1 4.5 

West 4.2 3.7 4.7 4.7 3.8 4.2 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 3.5 3.3 4.1 4.3 4.3 4.4 

6 to 20 percent 4.4 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.6 4.2 

21 to 50 percent 4.1 4.0 4.7 4.4 4.6 4.8 

More than 50 percent 3.6 3.8 4.2 4.2 3.2 4.0 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.6 3.8 

35 to 49 percent 5.8 5.3 6.2 6.1 5.6 5.6 

50 to 74 percent 4.1 3.8 5.1 4.9 4.2 5.6 

75 percent or more 4.2 4^) 4A 53 3i> 4.8 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-27 



Table B-20. — Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools offering instruction in 
various arts subjects, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Music 



Visual arts 



Dance 



Drama/theatre 



All public secondary schools 1.3 1.2 1.1 2.1 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 3.6 3.5 1.8 4.7 

400 to 999 1.4 1.2 1.9 3.4 

1,000 or more 1.4 0.8 2.5 3.1 

Locale 

City 2.9 1.9 2.2 4.1 

Urban fringe 2.2 1.5 2.4 3.4 

Town 3.2 3.5 2.9 5.0 

Rural 3.1 3.1 2.1 4.4 

Region 

Northeast 3.1 2.1 2.8 4.4 

Southeast 3.1 3.7 2.6 4.2 

Central 2.4 2.0 1.6 3.5 

West 2.4 2.5 2.6 4.0 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 2.7 2.0 2.1 3.6 

6 to 20 percent 2.5 2.7 2.7 4.5 

21 to50percent 2.7 1.6 2.7 4.1 

More than 50 percent 3.4 3.6 2.4 4.8 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 percent 1.7 1.4 1.5 2.7 

35 to 49 percent 3.2 3.9 3.1 6.3 

50 to 74 percent 3.3 4.1 2.8 4.5 

75 percent or more 53 6.8 4.4 8.9 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-28 



Table B-21. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering 
music instruction, according to the number of different music courses taught, by 
school characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 



School characteristic 



lor 2 
courses 



3 or 4 
courses 



5 or 6 
courses 



More than 6 
courses 



All public secondary schools 2.2 2.2 1.6 1.9 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 6.0 5.1 3.0 2.8 

400 to 999 2.9 2.8 2.6 3.1 

1,000 or more 2.5 2.5 3.0 2.9 

Locale 

City 3.1 3.9 2.8 4.1 

Urban fringe 3.1 2.8 3.1 3.4 

Town 6.0 5.0 4.3 4.2 

Rural 5.0 4.4 3.3 2.8 

Region 

Northeast 3.8 4.4 4.0 4.3 

Southeast 4.6 4.3 3.3 4.1 

Central 4.5 3.6 3.3 3.4 

West 3.8 3.9 2.3 2.3 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 3.5 3.6 2.5 2.9 

6 to 20 percent 4.0 3.5 3.0 3.7 

21 to 50 percent 4.3 3.9 3.1 3.4 

More than 50 percent 3.7 4.5 3.5 3.0 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 percent 3.2 2.7 2.0 2.5 

35 to 49 percent 5.6 5.2 4.0 4.5 

50 to 74 percent 5.4 4.1 4.4 3.3 

75 percent or more 8_1 72 69 56 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-29 



Table B-22. — Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools offering music instruction 
and reporting two or more full-time teachers on staff who taught music courses, by 
school characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 



School characteristic 



Two or more full-time teachers 



All public secondary schools 1.9 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 4.2 

400 to 999 3.2 

1,000 or more 2.6 

Locale 

City 3.9 

Urban fringe 3.3 

Town 5.2 

Rural 3.9 

Region 

Northeast 5.3 

Southeast 4.0 

Central 4.0 

West 4.3 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 4.0 

6 to 20 percent 5.0 

21 to 50 percent 3.9 

More than 50 percent 4.3 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 3.0 

35 to 49 percent 5.6 

50 to 74 percent 5.3 

75 percent or more 7.7 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-30 



Table B-23. 



-Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering 
music instruction, according to the space used for teaching the subject, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Dedicated 

room(s), with 

special equipment 



Dedicated 

room(s), no 

special equipment 



Gymnasium, 

auditorium, or 

cafeteria 



Other 



All public elementary schools 1.2 1.0 0.6 0.5 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 2.7 1.9 1.9 1.4 

400to999 2.0 2.0 0.7 0.5 

1,000 or more 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.6 

Locale 

City 2.8 2.6 0.6 0.8 

Urban fringe 1.5 1.2 0.7 0.6 

Town 2.7 2.4 1.3 (f) 

Rural 2.7 2.1 1.8 1.3 

Region 

Northeast 2.4 2.0 1.3 0.9 

Southeast 3.4 2.5 1.9 0.7 

Central 1.8 1.8 0.5 (t) 

West 2.8 2.1 1.5 1.3 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 1.9 1.2 1.4 0.6 

6 to 20 percent 1.9 1.9 0.6 (t) 

21 to 50 percent 3.5 3.0 2.1 (|) 

More than 50 percent 3.3 3.0 (|) 2.0 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 1.1 1.0 0.6 0.3 

35 to 49 percent 3.4 2.7 2.4 0.9 

50 to 74 percent 4.1 3.6 2.6 0.5 

75 percent or more 8.1 6.5 (t) 5.8 

t Not applicable: estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at or 100 percent. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-31 



Table B-24. — Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools offering music instruction 
and receiving funds from non-district sources to fund the music program, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Non-district funding 



All public secondary schools 1.9 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 4.9 

400 to 999 2.9 

1,000 or more 3.2 

Locale 

City 4.0 

Urban fringe 3.5 

Town 5.3 

Rural 5.0 

Region 

Northeast 5.4 

Southeast 4.5 

Central 4.2 

West 3.3 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 4.0 

6 to 20 percent 4.2 

21 to 50 percent 4.3 

More than 50 percent 3.7 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 3.0 

35 to 49 percent 5.1 

50 to 74 percent 4.2 

75 percent or more 6.0 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-32 



Table B-25. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering 
visual arts instruction, according to the number of different visual arts courses 
taught, by school characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 



School characteristic 



lor 2 
courses 



3 or 4 
courses 



5 or 6 
courses 



More than 6 
courses 



All public secondary schools 2.1 2.1 1.8 1.3 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 4.8 4.8 3.4 2.7 

400 to 999 3.0 2.9 2.8 1.9 

1,000 or more 1.9 2.7 2.5 2.5 

Locale 

City 4.7 4.2 3.3 2.5 

Urban fringe 2.8 3.1 2.3 2.7 

Town 5.4 4.9 4.4 3.4 

Rural 3.9 4.7 4.0 2.9 

Region 

Northeast 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.7 

Southeast 4.9 3.5 3.4 2.2 

Central : 4.1 3.9 3.5 3.2 

West 3.7 3.6 2.7 1.5 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 3.4 3.8 3.7 3.4 

6 to 20 percent 3.9 3.7 3.2 2.6 

21 to 50 percent 4.4 3.8 4.2 2.8 

More than 50 percent 4.2 4.0 2.9 2.5 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 percent 3.1 2.5 2.4 2.2 

35 to 49 percent 6.0 5.6 4.2 2.7 

50 to 74 percent 5.0 4.6 4.3 2.7 

75 percent or more 7_5 1_6 4A 4J$ 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-33 



Table B-26. — Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools offering visual arts 

instruction and reporting two or more full-time teachers on staff who taught visual 
arts courses, by school characteristics: Academic year 1998-99 



School characteristic 



Two or more full-time teachers 



All public secondary schools 1.8 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 2.9 

400 to 999 2.5 

1,000 or more 2.8 

Locale 

City 4.4 

Urban fringe 3.2 

Town 4.4 

Rural 3.0 

Region 

Northeast 4.9 

Southeast 3.3 

Central 3.4 

West 3.3 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 2.8 

6 to 20 percent 3.2 

21 to 50 percent 3.7 

More than 50 percent 3.7 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 2.6 

35 to 49 percent 4.3 

50 to 74 percent 4.4 

75 percent or more 7.5 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-34 



Table B-27. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering 

visual arts instruction, according to the space used for teaching the subject, by school 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Dedicated 

room(s), with 

special equipment 



Dedicated 

room(s), no 

special equipment 



Gymnasium, 

auditorium, or 

cafeteria 



Other 



All public elementary schools 1.6 1.2 0.4 0.9 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 3.6 2.7 1.4 3.0 

400 to 999 2.1 1.9 (t) 0.7 

1,000 or more 1.9 1.8 0.4 0.3 

Locale 

City 2.4 2.2 0.5 0.4 

Urban fringe 2.0 1.7 (t) 0.8 

Town 2.5 2.2 (t) 1.4 

Rural 3.9 3.3 1.3 2.8 

Region 

Northeast 2.6 2.5 (t) 1.0 

Southeast 2.6 2.5 (t) 1.2 

Central 2.1 1.4 0.3 1.6 

West 3.7 3.2 1.2 2.4 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 2.4 1.8 1.2 1.6 

6 to 20 percent 3.0 2.6 0.3 1.8 

21 to 50 percent 3.8 3.5 (t) 1.0 

More than 50 percent 4.1 2.9 (t) 3.0 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 percent 1.7 1.4 0.2 0.8 

35 to 49 percent 4.6 3.3 (t) 2.6 

50 to 74 percent 4.6 4.2 2.3 2.5 

75 percent or more {^6 5^ (t) 73 

t Not applicable: estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at or 100 percent. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-35 



Table B-28. — Standard errors of the percent and percentage distribution of public secondary 
schools offering dance and drama/theatre instruction, by various program 
characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



Program characteristic 



Dance 



Drama/theatre 



Number of courses offered in 1998-99 

I or2 courses 4.6 2.4 

3 or 4 courses 4.5 2.5 

5 or 6 courses 1.9 1.0 

More than 6 courses 1.5 0.8 

Types of teachers 

One or more full-time teachers 4.7 1.9 

One or more part-time teachers 4.6 1.9 

Space used for instruction 

Dedicated room, with special equipment 4.4 2.9 

Dedicated room, no special equipment 3.3 2.0 

Gymnasium, auditorium, or cafeteria 5.5 2.2 

Other 1.3 1.4 

District curriculum guide in the subject available 4.3 2.4 

Curriculum guide based on state standards or National Standards for Arts Education 

Yes 4.8 2.6 

No 2.3 0.8 

Don't know 4.9 2.7 

Funds from non-district sources available for instruction 5.1 2.2 

Percent of program budget coming from non-district sources 

10 percent or less 8.0 4.9 

II to 50 percent 9.0 5.2 

More than 50 percent 5.7 5.4 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-36 



Table B-29. — Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools that sponsored various 
supplemental arts education programs, by school characteristics: Academic year 
1998-99 



School characteristic 



Field trips 

to arts 

performances 



Field trips to 

art galleries or 

museums 



Visiting 
artist(s) 



Artist(s)-in- 
residence 



After-school 
activities that 
incorporate 
the arts 



All public secondary schools 1.9 1.9 2.3 1.6 2.2 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 5.1 4.4 4.7 3.3 5.5 

400 to 999 2.9 2.2 3.2 2.4 2.6 

1,000 or more 2.5 2.6 3.2 3.1 2.3 

Locale 

City 4.3 4.3 3.9 3.8 3.5 

Urban fringe 3.1 2.5 3.7 2.9 2.5 

Town 5.2 5.0 5.2 3.9 5.6 

Rural 4.3 4.2 4.3 3.3 4.6 

Region 

Northeast 4.2 4.0 4.9 4.3 3.1 

Southeast 4.6 3.9 3.6 3.1 4.4 

Central 3.9 3.9 4.1 2.7 3.2 

West 3.5 3.9 3.8 2.9 3.7 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 3.7 3.2 4.0 2.9 4.1 

6 to 20 percent 4.1 4.2 5.3 2.9 3.5 

21 to50percent 4.5 3.9 4.1 4.1 3.4 

More than 50 percent 4.5 4.0 4.8 3.4 5.0 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 
lunch 

Less than 35 percent 2.5 2.5 3.1 2.0 2.6 

35to49percent 6.4 6.2 4.6 5.7 6.2 

50 to 74 percent 4.2 4.8 5.2 4.2 5.3 

75 percent or more 8.2 8j> 1_9 1_2 8.4 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-37 



Table B-30. — Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools that used various funding 
sources for supplemental arts education programs: Academic year 1998-99 



Supplemental arts program 



Percent 

sponsoring 

program 



Source of funding 



General school 
or district funds 



Parent 
groups 



State or local 
arts agency 



State or federal 
education grant 



Field trips to arts performances 1.9 1.8 2.5 1.2 1.1 

Field trips to art galleries or museums 1.9 2.3 2.3 1.5 1.0 

Visiting artist(s) 2.3 3.5 3.3 2.9 3.2 

Artist(s)-in-residence 1.6 4.7 4.0 4.4 4.5 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-38 



Table B-31.- 



-Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools in which arts education 
was included in the mission statement or school improvement plan, or that were 
engaged in some reform initiative involving the arts, by school characteristics: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Arts education included 

in mission statement 

or school improvement plan 



School reform initiative related to 

arts education or the integration of 

the arts with other academic 

subjects 



All public secondary schools 2.1 1.8 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 4.3 4.3 

400 to 999 3.1 2.6 

1,000 or more 2.9 3.0 

Locale 

City 3.2 3.8 

Urban fringe 3.4 3.6 

Town 5.4 5.1 

Rural 4.7 3.8 

Region 

Northeast 3.7 4.4 

Southeast 4.8 4.2 

Central 4.1 4.0 

West 4.1 3.6 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 4.3 4.0 

6 to 20 percent 3.8 4.1 

21 to 50 percent 3.9 4.4 

More than 50 percent 4.0 4.0 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch 

Less than 35 percent 2.8 3.0 

35 to 49 percent 6.0 5.2 

50 to 74 percent 4.3 4.3 

75 percent or more 8_0 &S) 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-39 



Table B-32. — Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools indicating that arts 

specialists have input in selected management issues related to arts instruction, by 
school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Site-based 
management/ 

school 

improvement 

teams; leadership 

councils 



Arts curriculum 
offered 



Allocation of 
arts funds 



Hiring of 
arts staff 



All public secondary schools 1.5 1.2 2.0 2.2 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 3.9 2.9 4.9 4.5 

400 to 999 2.1 1.4 2.3 2.8 

1,000 ormore 1.7 1.9 2.5 3.1 

Locale 

City 2.4 2.8 3.2 4.8 

Urban fringe 2.3 1.9 3.1 3.4 

Town 3.6 2.7 3.8 5.5 

Rural 3.8 2.3 4.0 4.5 

Region 

Northeast 3.7 3.4 4.4 5.5 

Southeast 3.6 3.8 4.1 3.8 

Central 2.8 1.4 3.6 4.4 

West 2.9 2.6 3.7 4.2 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 3.4 2.0 . 4.3 4.2 

6 to 20 percent 2.1 1.8 3.1 3.9 

21 to 50 percent 2.9 2.4 3.5 5.0 

More than 50 percent 3.5 3.9 4.4 4.5 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 percent 2.0 1.5 2.7 3.1 

35 to 49 percent 4.9 2.9 6.0 5.3 

50 to 74 percent 2.9 3.4 3.8 5.4 

75 percent or more 6.8 7.9 8.4 7.4 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-40 



Table B-33. — Standard errors of the percent of public secondary schools indicating various ways 
that arts programs and instruction are assessed, and the presence of a district-level 
arts coordinator, by school characteristics: Academic year 1999-2000 



School characteristic 



Principal evaluates 

arts teachers in the 

same way other 

teachers are 

evaluated 



Principal evaluates 
the arts program in 

the same way 

other programs are 

evaluated 



School conducts 
standardized 
assessment of 

student 

achievement 

in the arts 



Specialist or 
coordinator at the 
district level who 
is responsible for 
the arts programs 
offered 



All public secondary schools 1.0 1.5 2.0 1.9 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 2.7 3.4 3.9 4.5 

400 to 999 1.0 1.6 2.7 3.0 

l,000ormore 1.1 1.6 2.6 2.8 

Locale 

City 0.5 1.6 2.6 4.6 

Urban fringe 1.4 1.7 2.8 3.0 

Town 2.8 3.1 5.1 4.7 

Rural 2.4 2.9 4.3 4.2 

Region 

Northeast 2.3 2.9 4.4 5.4 

Southeast 2.4 3.4 3.2 4.3 

Central 1.8 1.9 3.3 4.0 

West 1.9 2.8 3.3 3.8 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 2.0 2.5 3.4 4.1 

6 to 20 percent 1.8 2.5 3.7 4.3 

21 to 50 percent 1.0 2.9 4.0 4.6 

More than 50 percent 3.2 3.3 3.6 3.9 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 percent 1.3 2.1 2.1 2.6 

35 to 49 percent 0.7 2.7 5.3 5.7 

50 to 74 percent 2.2 3.1 5.4 5.7 

75 percent or more 7.3 7.2 6.8 7.3 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-41 



Table B-34. — Standard errors of the percent of public secondary school principals indicating the 

extent to which they believe individuals at the school and parents consider the arts an 
essential part of a high-quality education, by school characteristics: Academic year 
1999-2000 





Administrators 


Non-arts teaching staff 


Parents 


School characteristic 


Great 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 


Great 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 


Great 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 



All public secondary schools 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 

School enrollment size 

Less than 400 4.0 3.7 4.2 4.7 4.1 5.2 

400 to 999 2.9 2.3 2.9 3.0 2.7 2.6 

1,000 or more 2.4 2.2 2.8 3.0 2.7 3.2 

Locale 

City 3.5 3.1 3.6 3.4 3.6 3.0 

Urban fringe 3.0 2.6 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.5 

Town 4.3 4.0 5.5 5.6 5.5 4.8 

Rural 4.0 3.4 4.5 4.5 4.1 5.1 

Region 

Northeast 3.7 3.3 4.5 4.2 4.5 4.3 

Southeast 3.8 3.3 4.1 4.0 3.6 4.5 

Central 3.4 3.0 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.6 

West 4.1 4.1 3.7 3.7 4.1 3.9 

Percent minority enrollment 

5 percent or less 3.4 2.6 3.3 3.6 3.8 4.1 

6 to 20 percent 4.3 4.0 4.9 4.8 4.0 4.4 

21 to 50 percent 4.1 3.9 4.1 3.1 4.2 4.2 

More than 50 percent 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.7 3.7 3.8 

Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price 

lunch 

Less than 35 percent 2.4 2.1 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.6 

35 to 49 percent 3.9 4.0 5.6 5.7 5.7 6.3 

50 to 74 percent 5.2 5.3 5.0 4.9 4.6 5.4 

75 percent or more 8.5 S2 7^ O 6J) 7.6 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-42 






Table B-35. 



-Standard errors of the number and percent of music specialists, visual arts 
specialists, and classroom teachers in public elementary schools, by teaching status: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



Type of teacher and status 



National estimate 



Number 



Percent 



Music specialists 70,700 (t) 

Fulltime 63,100 1.5 

Part time 7,600 1.5 

Visual arts specialists 37,800 (t) 

Full time 30,200 2.6 

Part time 7,600 2.6 

Full time classroom teachers 903,200 02 

t Not applicable: estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at or 100 percent. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



B-43 



Table B-36. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school music 

specialists, visual arts specialists, and classroom teachers indicating their number of 
years of teaching experience, both overall and in-field: Academic year 1999-2000 





Years of teaching experience 


Type of teacher 


3 or fewer 
years 


4 to 9 
years 


10 to 19 

years 


20 or more 
years 



Music specialists 

Years of teaching experience overall 1.6 2.2 2.6 2.3 

Years of teaching in-field 1.6 2.2 2.4 2.3 

Visual arts specialists 

Years of teaching experience overall 2.6 2.4 2.7 2.8 

Years of teaching in-field 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.5 

Classroom teachers 

Years of teaching experience overall 1.8 19 2.1 2.6 

Years of teaching in-field ( — ) ( — ) ( — ) ( ) 

— Not available; statistic not collected for the classroom teacher survey. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



B-44 



Table B-37. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school music 
specialists, visual arts specialists, and classroom teachers indicating the number of 
years they plan to continue teaching: Academic year 1999-2000 



Type of teacher 



1 to 9 years 



10 to 19 years 



20 or more years 



Music specialists 2.7 2.8 2.8 

Visual arts specialists 3.3 3.4 3.2 

Classroom teachers 2.3 2.1 1.9 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



B-45 



Table B-38. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual 
arts specialists, and classroom teachers, by degrees held: Academic year 1999-2000 



Type of teacher 



Bachelor's 
degree 



Master's 
degree 



Doctor's 
degree 



Other 
degree 



Music specialists 0.3 2.9 0.5 0.7 

Visual arts specialists 0.2 2.9 (|) 1.4 

Classroom teachers 0.2 2.1 0.2 0.7 

t Not applicable: estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at or 100 percent. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 

School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



B-46 



Table B-39. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary school music and visual arts 
specialists with a degree in-field and who majored in various fields of study for a 
bachelor's or master's degree: Academic year 1999-2000 



Degree and field of study 



Music specialists 



Visual arts specialists 



Bachelor's or master's degree in-field 14 2.4 

Bachelor's degree 

Music education 2.6 (#) 

Music 2.5 (#) 

Arts education (#) 35 

Applied or fine arts (#) 3 1 

Elementary education 12 1.9 

Other 1.0 1.8 

Master's degree 

Music education 4.2 (#) 

Music 2.9 (#) 

Arts education (#) 5.2 

Applied or fine arts (#) 4.6 

Elementary education 2.0 2.0 

Other 3.6 4.9 

#Too few cases for a reliable estimate. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



B-47 



Table B-40. 



-Standard errors of the percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual 
arts specialists, and classroom teachers, by the types of teaching certificates held: 
Academic year 1999-2000 



Type of teacher 



General elementary 
education certificate 



Arts education 
certificate 



Neither 



Music specialists 2.0 1.4 1.4 

Visual arts specialists 3.3 2.0 1.6 

Classroom teachers 0.3 ( — ) ( — ) 

— Not available; statistic not collected for the classroom teacher survey. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 

School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



B-48 



Table B-41.- 



-Standard errors of the percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual 
arts specialists, and classroom teachers indicating the number of hours spent in 
various professional development activities in the last 12 months, by content area: 
Academic year 1999-2000 





Music specialists 


Visual arts specialists 


Classroom teachers 


Content area 


lto8 


More 
than 8 


1 to 8 


More 
than 8 


1 to 8 


More 
than 8 



Activities focusing on arts instruction 

Applied study in an arts area 4.1 4.1 3.6 3.6 3.9 3.9 

Developing knowledge of the historical, cultural, 

or analytical aspects of an arts area 3.4 3.4 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0 

Connecting arts learning with other subject areas 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.2 3.2 

Activities designed for all teachers 

New methods of teaching 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 

Incorporating state or district standards into 

instruction 2.9 2.9 3.8 3.8 2.4 2.4 

Student performance assessment 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.3 2.7 2.7 

Integrating education technologies into 

instruction 3.4 34 3/7 3/7 2JS 2.8 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 

School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Surveys of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



B-49 



Table B-42. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school music and 
visual arts specialists, by the number of schools at which they teach: Academic year 
1999-2000 



Type of teacher 



1 school 



2 schools 



3 schools 



4 schools or 
more 



Music specialists 

Visual arts specialists 



2.8 
3.1 



2.8 
2.9 



2.2 
1.9 



2.5 
1.6 



SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



B-50 






Table B-43. — Standard errors of the means for various indicators of teaching load for public 
elementary school music and visual arts specialists: Academic year 1999-2000 



Indicator of teaching load 



Music specialists 



Visual arts specialists 



Mean number of classes taught in a typical school day 2.3 2.0 

Mean number of classes taught in a typical school week, across all schools 0.8 0.5 

Mean number of students taught in total, across all schools 34 14 1 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



B-51 



Table B-44. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school music and 
visual arts specialists indicating how adequate are various aspects of their schools' 
arts programs in support of their instruction: Academic year 1999-2000 



Type of support 



Not at all 
adequate 



Minimally 
adequate 



Moderately 
adequate 



Completely 
adequate 



Music specialists 

Facilities (dedicated room or space for music instruction) 1.9 2.1 2.4 2.2 

Instructional resources (materials and supplies for music instruction, 

such as sheet music, tapes, and CDs) 1.3 2.4 2.2 2.4 

Classroom instruments (instruments typically used by students in the 

general music classroom) 1.4 1.8 2.7 2.4 

Orchestra or band instruments (instruments available for students 

wishing to participate in the school string/orchestra or band 

program) 2.3 3.8 4.1 2.6 

Classroom equipment (equipment typically used in the general music 

classroom, such as a piano or a stereo system) 0.9 1.6 2.8 2.7 

Technologies (electronic equipment used in the study and creation of 

music, such as computer. MDI keyboards, and sequencers) 2.7 2.5 2.0 1.3 

Instructional time with students 0.9 2.8 3.0 2.3 

Time for individual or collaborative planning 2.1 2.6 2.5 1.7 

Visual arts specialists 

Facilities (dedicated room or space for visual arts instruction) 2.5 2.1 2.7 2.9 

Instructional resources (reusable resources used for instruction in 

visual arts, such as art prints, slides, and videotapes) 1.8 2.8 3.2 2.7 

Art materials (expendable resources such as paint, ink, clay, and 

paper) 0.9 2.6 3.0 2.9 

Art tools (equipment used to create and learn about visual arts, such 

as brushes, scissors, brayers, and clay tools) 0.3 2.6 2.8 2.6 

Classroom equipment (equipment used to create and learn about 

visual arts, such as cameras, kilns, and easels) 2.4 2.4 2.8 2.4 

Technologies (electronic equipment used in the study and creation of 

art, such as computers, scanners, and video equipment) 2.8 3.1 2.6 2.2 

Instructional time with students 1.2 3.0 3.2 2.6 

Time for individual or collaborative planning 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.3 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



B-52 



Table B-45. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school music and 
visual arts specialists reporting frequency of participation in various collaborative 
activities related to arts instruction within the last 12 months: Academic year 1999- 
2000 





Music specialists 


Visual arts specialists 


Arts-specific collaborative activity 


Never 


A few 

times a 

year 


At least 
once a 
month 


Never 


A few 

times a 

year 


At least 
once a 
month 



Common planning period with other arts specialists at the 

school 3.1 2.5 2.0 2.8 2.8 2.5 

Consulting with classroom teachers about integrating the arts 

subject taught into a lesson or unit ofstudy that they teach... 3.1 2.6 2.0 2.2 3.0 2.9 

Collaborating with other teachers on designing and teaching 

an interdisciplinary lesson or unit ofstudy that includes 

taught subject 3.2 2.8 1.7 2.8 3.6 3.1 

Visiting classrooms of colleagues who teach the same 

subject 3.0 2JS \_2 3_Q 26 1.7 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



B-53 



Table B-46. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school music 
specialists, visual arts specialists, and classroom teachers reporting frequency of 
participation in various collaborative activities related to teaching within the last 12 
months: Academic year 1999-2000 





Music specialists 


Visual arts specialists 


Classroom teachers 


Collaborative activity 


Never 


A few 

times a 

year 


At least 
once a 
month 


Never 


A few 

times a 

year 


At least 
once a 
month 


Never 


A few 

times a 

year 


At least 
once a 
month 



Common planning period with (other) 

regular classroom teachers 2.4 2.2 1.5 3.4 2.9 2.2 1.5 1.9 2.1 

Sharing ideas about teaching with 

teachers outside assigned school(s) 1.8 2.9 2.8 2.1 2.8 2.6 1.5 2.5 2.3 

Participating in site-based management or 

school improvement teams 3.1 2.7 1.8 3.1 2.9 2.2 1.8 2.4 2.1 

Providing input in the preparation of 

Individual Education Plans 2.8 2.8 1.5 3.0 2.6 L7 1.5 2.4 2.2 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 






B-54 



Table B-47.— I 



Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school music and 
visual arts specialists indicating the degree to which they agree with various 
statements about how instruction in music and visual arts is valued at their schools: 
Academic year 1999-2000 





Music 


Visual arts 


Supportive statement 


Strongly 
disagree 


Some- 
what 
disagree 


Some- 
what 
agree 


Strongly 
agree 


Strongly 
disagree 


Some- 
what 
disagree 


Some- 
what 
agree 


Strongly 
agree 



Parents support me in my efforts to 
educate their children 

The administration supports me in my 
work 

Other teachers consider my subject an 
important part of the school's 
curriculum 

The school administrators and teachers 
are in favor of interdisciplinary 
instruction that includes my subject.... 

Students are motivated to do well in my 
class 



0.6 
1.0 

1.4 

1.2 
0.7 



1.2 



1.6 



1.9 



3.1 



2.1 



2.7 



3.1 



2.4 



2.0 



0.7 



1.4 



1.0 



1.6 



1.9 



2.3 



3.4 



3.0 



2.9 



3.0 



3.4 



2.6 



2.1 2.6 1.8 1.4 2.0 3.3 3.0 

1.5 2.8 2.9 0.6 1.3 3.1 3.1 



SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



B-55 



Table B-48. — Standard errors of the percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual 
arts specialists, and classroom teachers reporting various characteristics of the arts 
curriculum that is taught at their schools: Academic year 1999-2000 



Characteristic of arts curriculum 



Music specialists 



Visual arts specialists 



Classroom teachers 



Based on a local or district curriculum guide 2.0 2.8 2.3 

Aligned with state standards or National Standards for Arts Education j 6 2.4 2.6 

Integrated with other arts subjects 2.8 2.7 ( ) 

Integrated with other academic subjects 2.8 2.4 1.6 

— Not available; statistic not collected for the classroom teacher survey. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 

School Music Specialists," and "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



B-56 



Table B-49. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school classroom 
teachers, according to the extent to which they included the arts in their instruction, 
by type of activity: Academic year 1999-2000 



Activity 



Not at all 



Small extent 



Moderate extent 



Great extent 



Incorporate music into instruction in other subject areas 1.8 2.8 2.5 1.9 

Incorporate visual arts into instruction in other subject areas 0.5 1.9 2.5 2.2 

Incorporate drama/theatre into instruction in other subject areas.... 1.6 2.5 2.2 1.4 

Incorporate dance into instruction in other subject areas 2.0 2.3 1.4 0.9 

Teach thematic units that integrate subjects, including the arts 1.2 2.4 2.1 2.2 

Use prepackaged curriculum materials or textbooks to teach the 

arts 2.1 1.9 1.4 0.9 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, and "Arts Survey of 
Elementary School Classroom Teachers," FRSS 77. 



B-57 



Table B-50. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school music 

specialists reporting the degree to which they emphasize various goals or objectives of 
student learning: Academic year 1999-2000 



Goal or objective in music 



No 
emphasis 



Minor 
emphasis 



Moderate 
emphasis 



Major 
emphasis 



Singing a varied repertoire of music 1.9 1.6 2.4 2.8 

Performing a varied repertoire on a range of instruments 1.6 2.5 2.9 2.5 

Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments 2.0 2.9 2.5 1,5 

Composing and arranging music 2.6 2.5 2.0 1.4 

Reading and notating music 0.8 1.4 2.5 2.8 

Listening to, analyzing, and describing music 0.8 2.7 3.0 2.7 

Evaluating music and music performances 1.4 2.1 2.5 2.6 

Learning about the expressive possibilities of music 0.5 2.4 2.7 2.8 

Making connections between music, the other arts, and other 

disciplines 0.9 2.5 2.6 2.4 

Understanding music in relation to history and cultures 1 .0 2.3 2.2 2.4 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," FRSS 77. 



B-58 



Table B-51.- 



-Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school visual arts 
specialists reporting the degree to which they emphasize various goals or objectives of 
student learning: Academic year 1999-2000 



Goal or objective in visual art 



No 
emphasis 



Minor 
emphasis 



Moderate 
emphasis 



Major 
emphasis 



Creating works in a broad range of art forms 0.6 1.8 2.8 3.2 

Understanding and applying various media, techniques, and 

processes 0.2 1.0 2.8 2.9 

Using knowledge of elements, functions, and principles of art (t) 1.2 2.7 2.9 

Choosing and evaluating a range of subject matter, symbols, and 

ideas 0.6 2.0 2.6 2.6 

Learning about the expressive possibilities of visual arts 0.2 1.9 3.1 2.7 

Reflecting upon and assessing own or others' work 0.5 2.2 2.8 2.8 

Making connections between visual arts, other arts, and other 

disciplines 1.2 2.6 3.1 3.5 

Understanding visual arts in relation to history and cultures 0.9 2.0 2.9 3.1 

t Not applicable: estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at or 100 percent. 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



B-59 



Table B-52. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary school music 
specialists, visual arts specialists, and classroom teachers reporting the extent to 
which they use various types of assessments in their arts instruction: Academic year 
1999-2000 



Extent of use 



Observation 



Selected- 
response 
assessments 



Short written 

answers or 

essays 



Performance 
tasks or 
projects 



Portfolio 

collections 

of student 

work 



Developed 
rubrics 



Music specialists 

Not at all 0.3 2.8 2.8 1.0 3.3 3.8 

Small extent 0.6 3.0 3.2 2.1 2.6 2.4 

Moderate extent 1.6 2.5 2.4 2.8 1.7 2.8 

Great extent 1.8 1.8 0.7 3.0 1.4 1.4 

Visual arts specialists 

Not at all 0.3 3.1 3.1 1.2 3.0 3.5 

Small extent 0.4 2.8 3.1 1.5 2.6 3.1 

Moderate extent 2.2 1.9 2.6 3.1 2.6 3.1 

Great extent 2.2 1.3 1.4 3.3 3.1 2.7 

Classroom teachers 

Not at all 1.2 3.5 3.5 1.9 3.0 4.2 

Small extent 2.5 3.0 3.1 2.6 3.0 3.2 

Moderate extent 3.7 2.4 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 

Great extent 4.6 13 2j0 3A 33 2.1 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 

School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



B-60 



Table B-53. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary music specialists 
reporting the extent to which they participate in various activities related to music 
outside of their regular school duties, by type of activity: Academic year 1999-2000 



Activity 



Not at all 



Small extent 



Moderate extent 



Great extent 



Provide instrument/voice instruction 2.7 2.7 2.1 2.8 

Perform as a soloist or with an ensemble 2.2 2.1 2.6 2.7 

Compose or arrange music 2.7 2.5 2.2 1.6 

Conduct community or other ensembles 3.0 2.2 2.1 2.7 

Attend live music performances 0.3 2.1 2.8 2.7 

Study, critique, or write about music 2.6 2.4 1.4 1.5 

Provide arts leadership in community or state 2.7 2.9 2.0 1.4 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System. "Survey of Elementary 

School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



B-6 



Table B-54. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary visual arts 

specialists reporting the extent to which they participate in activities related to visual 
arts outside of school duties, by type of activity: Academic year 1999-2000 



Activity 



Not at all 



Small extent 



Moderate extent 



Great extent 



Teach art at a studio or gallery 3.0 2.1 1.6 1.5 

Create works of art 1.1 3.5 3.1 3.2 

Exhibit works of art 2.8 2.5 2.4 1.7 

View and respond to art at museums or galleries 1.3 2.6 2.7 2.9 

Study, critique, or write about art 3.0 2.4 2.5 1.8 

Provide arts leadership in community or state 2.5 2.9 2.2 1.7 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Visual Arts Specialists," FRSS 77. 



B-62 






Table B-55. — Standard errors of the percentage distribution of public elementary classroom 

teachers reporting the extent to which they participate in activities related to the arts 
outside of school duties, by type of activity: Academic year 1999-2000 



Activity 



Not at all 



Small extent 



Moderate extent 



Great extent 



Create or perform works of art 2.2 1.8 1.4 1.2 

Teach one of the arts 1.7 1.4 0.7 0.7 

View or respond to art 1.4 2.2 2.5 1.6 

Study, critique, or write about art 2.2 2.0 0.9 0.6 

Provide arts leadership in community or state 1.6 1.4 0.7 0.5 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, and "Arts Survey of 
Elementary School Classroom Teachers," FRSS 77. 



B-63 



Table B-56. — Standard errors for chapter 2 figures and data not shown in tables: Academic years 
1998-99 and 1999-2000 



Item 



Estimate 



Standard error 



Figure 1: Percent of public elementary schools offering instruction designated specifically 
for music, visual arts, dance, and drama/theatre: Academic year 1999-2000 

Music 

Visual arts 

Dance 

Drama/theatre 

Figure 2: Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering music instruction, 
according to the portion of the school year that a typical student received instruction: 
Academic year 1999-2000 

Entire school year 

Half the year 

One-quarter of the year 

Less than one-quarter of the year 

Other 

Figure 3: Percentage distribution of public elementary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in music, according to whether the guide was aligned with the state's standards or the 
National Standards for Arts Education: Academic year 1999-2000 

Curriculum guide aligned with the state's standards or the National Standards for Arts Education... 
No curriculum guide aligned with the state's standards or the National Standards for Arts 

Education 

Unknown whether curriculum guide aligned with the state's standards or the National Standards 

for Arts Education 



94 
87 
20 
19 



93 

4 
1 
2 
1 



78 

4 

18 



1.0 
1.4 
1.5 
1.6 



1.2 
0.9 
0.3 
0.6 
0.3 



2.1 
1.0 
2.0 



Figure 4: Percentage distribution of public elementary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in music, according to whether the guide was created or updated in the last 5 years: 
Academic year 1999-2000 

Curriculum guide created or updated in the last 5 years 78 

Curriculum guide not created or updated in the last 5 years 10 

Unknown whether curriculum guide created or updated in the last 5 years 12 

Figure 5: Percent of public elementary schools offering music instruction, according to 
whether the school receives funds from non-district sources, and the percent of the 
designated music budget that comes from these sources: Academic year 1999-2000 

No non-district funding 80 

Any non-district funding 20 

10 percent or less 65 

11 to 50 percent 26 

More than 50 percent 9 

Figure 6: Percentage distribution of public elementary schools offering visual arts 
instruction, according to the portion of the school year that a typical student received 
instruction: Academic year 1999-2000 

Entire school year 88 

Half the year 5 

One-quarter of the year 3 

Less than one-quarter of the year 3 

Other 2 

Figure 7: Percentage distribution of public elementary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in visual arts, according to whether the guide was aligned with the state's standards 
or the National Standards for Arts Education: Academic year 1999-2000 

Curriculum guide aligned with the state's standards or the National Standards for Arts Education 77 

No curriculum guide aligned with the state's standards or the National Standards for Arts 

Education 5 

Unknown whether curriculum guide aligned with the state's standards or the National Standards 

for Arts Education 18 



2.2 
1.6 
1.6 



1.5 
1.5 

5.6 
4.6 
3.4 



1.5 
1.0 
0.7 
0.6 
0.8 



2.3 
1.6 

2.0 



B-64 



Table B-56. — Standard errors for chapter 2 figures and data not shown in tables: Academic years 
1998-99 and 1999-2000— Continued 



Item 



Estimate 



Standard error 



Figure 8: Percentage distribution of public elementary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in visual arts, according to whether the curriculum guide was created or updated in 
the last 5 years: Academic year 1999—2000 

Curriculum guide created or updated in the last 5 years 81 2.5 

Curriculum guide not created or updated in the last 5 years 10 1 .8 

Unknown whether curriculum guide created or updated in the last 5 years 9 1 .5 

Figure 9: Percent of public elementary schools offering visual arts instruction, according to 
whether the school receives funds from non-district sources, and the percent of the 
designated visual arts budget that comes from these sources: Academic year 1999-2000 

No non-district funding 78 1.8 

Any non-district funding 22 1 .8 

10 percent or less 63 4.2 

1 1 to 50 percent 23 3.4 

More than 50 percent 15 3.2 

Figure 10: Percent of public elementary schools indicating various methods of 
incorporating dance or creative movement into other curriculum areas: Academic year 
1999-2000 

Dance taught as part of the physical education program 48 2.2 

Dance taught as part of the music curriculum 48 2.2 

Dance integrated into other curriculum areas 28 1 .9 

Figure 11: Percent of public elementary schools indicating various methods of 
incorporating drama/theatre into other curriculum areas: Academic year 1999-2000 

Drama taught as part of the English/language arts curriculum 30 2.2 

Drama activities integrated into other areas of the curriculum 43 2.6 

Other approaches to including drama activities 11 1 .4 

Chapter 2, section on dance instruction 

Percent of elementary schools reporting that dance curriculum guide had been created or updated 

in the last 5 years 75 6.1 

Chapter 2, section on drama/theatre instruction 

Percent of elementary schools reporting that drama/theatre curriculum guide had been created or 

updated in the last 5 years 82 5.3 

Chapter 2, section on availability of supplemental programs and activities 

Mean number of visiting artists per elementary school 3.3 0.3 

Mean number of artists-in-residence elementary per school 2J 02 

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Elementary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-65 



Table B-57. — Standard errors for chapter 3 figures and data not shown in tables: Academic years 
1998-99 and 1999-2000 



Item 



Estimate 



Standard error 



Figure 12: Percent of public secondary schools offering music, visual arts, dance, and 
drama/theatre instruction: Academic year 1999-2000 

Music 90 

Visual arts 93 

Dance 14 

Drama/theatre 48 

Figure 13: Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering music instruction, 
according to the numbers of full-time and part-time teachers who taught courses in the 
subject: Academic year 1998-99 

full-time music teachers 9 

1 full-time music teacher 38 

2 full-time music teachers 34 

3 or more full-time music teachers 19 

part-time music teachers 62 

1 part-time music teacher 25 

2 part-time music teachers 9 

3 or more part-time music teachers 3 

Figure 14: Percentage distribution of public secondary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in music, according to whether the guide was aligned with the state's standards or the 
National Standards for Arts Education: Academic year 1999-2000 

Curriculum guide aligned with the state's standards or the National Standards for Arts Education 80 

No curriculum guide aligned with the state's standards or the National Standards for Arts 

Education 4 

Unknown whether curriculum guide aligned with the state's standards or the National Standards 

for Arts Education 17 



1.3 
1.2 
1.1 
2.1 



1.4 

2.2 
1.9 
1.6 

2.1 
1.8 
1.1 
0.6 



2.1 
1.0 
1.9 



Figure 15: Percentage distribution of public secondary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in music, according to whether the guide was created or updated in the last 5 years: 
Academic year 1999-2000 

Curriculum guide created or updated in the last 5 years 83 

Curriculum guide not created or updated in the last 5 years 8 

Unknown whether curriculum guide created or updated in the last 5 years 10 

Figure 16: Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering music instruction 
and receiving funds from non-district sources, by the percent of the designated music 
budget that comes from these sources: Academic year 1999-2000 

No non-district funding 53 

Any non-district funding 47 

10 percent or less 53 

1 1 to 50 percent 34 

More than 50 percent 13 

Figure 17: Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering visual arts 
instruction, according to the numbers of full-time and part-time teachers who taught 
courses in the subject: Academic year 1998-99 

full-time visual arts teachers 6 

1 full-time visual arts teacher 62 

2 full-time visual arts teachers 20 

3 or more full-time visual arts teachers 13 

part-time visual arts teachers 78 

1 part-time visual arts teacher 20 

2 part-time visual arts teachers 1 

3 or more part-time visual arts teachers 1 



1.9 
1.3 
1.2 



1.9 
1.9 

3.5 
3.5 
2.3 



1.3 

2.1 
1.7 
1.0 

2.0 
2.0 
0.3 
0.4 



B-66 



Table B-57. — Standard errors for chapter 3 figures and data not shown in tables: Academic years 
1998-99 and 1999-2000— Continued 



Item 



Estimate 



Standard error 



Figure 18: Percentage distribution of public secondary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in visual arts, according to whether the guide was aligned with the state's standards 
or the National Standards for Arts Education: Academic year 1999—2000 

Curriculum guide aligned with the state's standards or the National Standards for Arts Education 
No curriculum guide aligned with die state's standards or the National Standards for Arts 

Education 

Unknown whether curriculum guide aligned with the state's standards or the National Standards 

for Arts Education 

Figure 19: Percentage distribution of public secondary schools with a written curriculum 
guide in visual arts, according to whether the guide was created or updated in the last 5 
years: Academic year 1999-2000 



Curriculum guide created or updated in the last 5 years 

Curriculum guide not created or updated in the last 5 years 

Unknown whether curriculum guide created or updated in the last S years . 



Figure 20: Percentage distribution of public secondary schools offering visual arts 
instruction and receiving funds from non-district sources, by the percent of the designated 
music budget that comes from these sources: Academic year 1999-2000 

No non-district funding , 

Any non-district funding 



10 percent or less 

11 to 50 percent 

More than 50 percent . 



Figure 21 : Percent of public secondary schools reporting various ways that creative writing 
is taught or included in the school curriculum: Academic year 1999-2000 



Courses in creative writing taught at school 

Creative writing techniques taught in English department 

Creative writing is integrated into other areas of the curriculum.. 



Chapter 3, section on music instruction 

Percent of secondary schools reporting a written curriculum guide in music. 

Chapter 3, section on visual arts instruction 



Percent of secondary schools reporting a written curriculum guide in visual arts 

Percent of secondary schools reporting receiving funds from parent groups, booster clubs, or local 
businesses 

Chapter 3, section on availability of supplemental programs and activities 



Mean number of visiting artists per secondary school 

Mean number of artists-in-residence per secondary school. 



81 

4 

15 



82 

10 

8 



35 
90 
81 



86 



1.9 
1.0 
1.6 



1.8 
1.2 
1.2 



82 


1.6 


18 


1.6 


74 


4.7 


14 


3.4 


12 


3.3 



1.9 
1.1 
1.5 



1.5 



87 


1.5 


18 


1.6 


2.5 


0.2 


2.0 


0.2 



SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Secondary School Arts 
Education Survey: Fall 1999," FRSS 67. 



B-67 



Table B-58. — Standard errors for chapter 4 figures and data not shown in tables: Academic years 
1998-99 and 1999-2000 



Item 



Estimate 



Standard error 



Figure 22: Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers who participated in various professional development activities focusing 
on arts instruction in the last 12 months: Academic year 1999-2000 

Applied study in arts area: Music specialists 49 

Applied study in arts area: Visual arts specialists 56 

Applied study in arts area: Classroom teachers 27 

Developing knowledge about an arts area: Music specialists 60 

Developing knowledge about an arts area: Visual arts specialists 72 

Developing knowledge about an arts area: Classroom teachers 25 

Connecting arts learning with other subject areas: Music specialists 72 

Connecting arts learning with other subject areas: Visual arts specialists 79 

Connecting arts learning with other subject areas: Classroom teachers 46 

Figure 23: Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers who participated in various professional development activities designed 
for teachers in the last 12 months: Academic year 1999-2000 

New methods of teaching: Music specialists 68 

New methods of teaching: Visual arts specialists 70 

New methods of teaching: Classroom teachers 86 

Incorporating state or district standards into instruction: Music specialists 78 

Incorporating state or district standards into instruction: Visual arts specialists 81 

Incorporating state or district standards into instruction: Classroom teacher 90 

Student performance or assessment: Music specialists 69 

Student performance or assessment: Visual arts specialists 69 

Student performance or assessment: Classroom teachers 87 

Integrating education technologies into instruction in taught subject area: Music specialists 65 

Integrating education technologies into instruction in taught subject area: Visual arts specialists 64 

Integrating education technologies into instruction in taught subject area: Classroom teachers 84 

Figure 24: Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers who participated in professional development activities focusing on arts 
instruction in the last 12 months and indicating that the activity improved their teaching to 
a moderate or great extent: Academic year 1999-2000 

Applied study in arts area: Music specialists 73 

Applied study in arts area: Visual arts specialists 73 

Applied study in arts area: Classroom teachers 51 

Developing knowledge about an arts area: Music specialists 70 

Developing knowledge about an arts area: Visual arts specialists 75 

Developing knowledge about an arts area: Classroom teachers 53 

Connecting arts learning with other subject areas: Music specialists 69 

Connecting arts learning with other subject areas: Visual arts specialists 75 

Connecting arts learning with other subject areas: Classroom teachers 57 



2.8 
3.0 

2.2 

2.9 

2.6 
2.2 

2.2 
3.0 
2.5 



2.1 
3.3 
1.6 

2.1 
2.4 
1.3 

2.3 
3.2 
1.4 

2.7 
3.5 
1.7 



3.6 
3.6 

4.7 

3.8 
3.3 
4.2 

2.8 
3.2 
3.3 



B-68 



Table B-58. — Standard errors for chapter 4 figures and data not shown in tables: Academic years 
1998-99 and 1999-2000— Continued 



Item 



Estimate 



Standard error 



Figure 25: Percent of public elementary school music specialists, visual arts specialists, and 
classroom teachers who participated in professional development activities designed for 
teachers in the last 12 months and indicated that the activity improved their teaching to a 
moderate or great extent: Academic year 1999—2000 

New methods of teaching: Music specialists 58 

New methods of teaching: Visual arts specialists 58 

New methods of teaching: Classroom teachers 77 

Incorporating state or district standards into instruction: Music specialists 54 

Incorporating state or district standards into instruction: Visual arts specialists 55 

Incorporating state or district standards into instruction: Classroom teachers 70 

Student performance or assessment: Music specialists 50 

Student performance or assessment: Visual arts specialists 55 

Student performance or assessment: Classroom teachers 67 

Integrating education technologies into instruction in taught subject area: Music specialists 55 

Integrating education technologies into instruction in taught subject area: Visual arts specialists 61 

Integrating education technologies into instruction in taught subject area: Classroom teachers 70 

Figure 26: Mean number of hours teachers have designated as planning or preparation 
time when students are in attendance during a typical school week, by type of teacher: 
Academic year 1999-2000 

Music specialists 3.6 

Visual arts specialists 4.2 

Classroom teachers 3.4 



3.2 
3.0 

2.4 

3.4 
3.1 
2.4 

3.7 
3.4 
2.7 

5.5 
4.0 
2.5 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 



Chapter 4, section on classroom teachers and assessment in the arts 

Classroom teachers who included arts in their instruction and used formal assessments to 
evaluate students 

Chapter 4, section on educational backgrounds of specialists and classroom teachers 

Classroom teachers who had an arts major or minor for their bachelor's degree 

Classroom teachers who had an arts major or minor for their master's degree 

Classroom teachers who had an arts major or minor for their bachelor's or master's degree . 



48 



9 

2 
10 



2.5 



1.1 
1.1 
1.2 



SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fast Response Survey System, "Survey of Elementary 
School Music Specialists," "Survey of Elementary School Visual Arts Specialists," and "Arts Survey of Elementary School Classroom 
Teachers," FRSS 77. 



B-69 



B-70 



Appendix C 
Survey Questionnaires 



c-i 



C-2 



1999 FRSS ARTS EDUCATION SURVEY INSTRUMENTS 



C-3 



C-4 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20208-5651 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ARTS EDUCATION SURVEY: FALL 1999 

FAST RESPONSE SURVEY SYSTEM 



FORM APPROVED 
O.M.B. NO.: 1850-0733 
EXPIRATION DATE: 07/2002 



This survey is authorized by law (P.L. 103-382). While you are not required to respond, your cooperation is needed to make the results of this 
survey comprehensive, accurate, and timely. 



DEFINITIONS FOR THIS SURVEY: 

Artist-in-Residence — A visual, literary, or performing artist or folklorist — sometimes called Artist-in-the-School — who 
visits a school for an extended period (more than 1 week) for the purposes of teaching artistic techniques and concepts, 
conducting inservice teacher training, and/or consulting in the development of curricula. 

Certified (credentialed) specialist — An education professional with an advanced, regular, or alternative state certificate in 
one of the arts disciplines, or with a degree from an accredited arts education program. 

Dance — An instructional program that prepares students to express themselves through movement in the performance of one 
or more of the dance disciplines, including ballet, modern, jazz, ethnic, and folk dance, and that describes dance as a 
cultural phenomenon. Includes instruction in choreography, dance history and criticism, and dance production. 

Drama/theatre — An instructional program that generally describes the study of dramatic works and their performance. 
Includes instruction in dramatic literature, dramatic styles and types, and the principles of organizing and producing plays. 

Music — An instructional program for the purpose of helping students learn to perform, create, and respond to (appreciate) 
music. Performance studies include voice, choir, and instrumental studies such as guitar, piano, band, and orchestra. 
Creating studies include music improvisation, arranging, and composition. Music classes typically foster appreciation by 
developing an understanding of music theory, criticism, and the historical development of music in various cultures. 

Visiting artist — A visual, literary, or performing artist or folklorist who visits a school to perform, demonstrate, or teach for a 
period of 1 week or less. 

Visual arts — An instructional program for the purpose of helping students learn to create and respond to the visual arts. 

Students create their own artwork in a range of media and processes. Art classes typically foster appreciation by developing 
an understanding of art history and criticism and the roles visual arts play within various cultures, times, and places. 



AFFIX LABEL HERE 



IF ABOVE INFORMATION IS INCORRECT, PLEASE MAKE CORRECTIONS DIRECTLY ON LABEL. 

Name of person completing form: Telephone: 

Title/position: 

Best days and times to reach you (in case of questions): 

E-mail: 



Grades taught at this school: Low grade 



High grade 



PLEASE RETURN COMPLETED FORM TO: 

WESTAT 

1650 Research Boulevard 

Rockville, Maryland 20850 

Attention: 716603-Carey 



IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS, CONTACT: 

Nancy Carey 
800-937-8281, ext. 4467 
Fax: 800-254-0984 
E-mail: careyn1@westat.com 



According to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, no persons are required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a valid 
OMB control number. The valid OMB control number for this information collection is 1 850-0733. The time required to complete this information 
collection is estimated to average 30 minutes per response, including the time to review instructions, search existing data resources, gather the 
data needed, and complete and review the information collected. If you have any comments concerning the accuracy of the time estimate(s) or 
suggestions for improving this form, please write to: U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC. 20202-4651 . If you have comments or 
concerns regarding the status of your individual submission of this form, write directly to: National Center for Education Statistics, 555 New 
Jersey Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20208. 

FRSS Form No. 67, 7/2002 



C-5 



PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS 

Questions 1 through 8 of this questionnaire ask a series of questions about instruction at your school this year in 
the following arts subjects: visual arts, music, dance, and drama/theatre. Before answering the questions, 
please refer to the definitions on the cover. Then answer question 1 for the first subject listed. If the answer to 
question 1 is 1-4, proceed with questions 2 through 7 for that subject. If the answer to question 1 is 5 ("not at all"), 
then go to the subject in the next column and answer question 1. Then proceed with Questions 2 through 7 for that 
subject. 



Questions 



Visual 
arts 



Music 



Dance 



Drama/ 
theatre 



1. How often does a typical student in your school receive 
instruction designated specifically for this subject during 
the regular school day? (Circle one.) 

a. Every day 

b. 3 or 4 times a week 

c. Once or twice a week 

d. Less than once a week 

e. Not at all (Skip to the next column.) 

2. Approximately how many minutes is a typical class or period of 
instruction in the subject? 

3. What is the duration of the class, i.e., does a typical student 
receive instruction throughout the school year or for some portion 
of the year? (Circle one.) 

a. Entire school year 

b. Half the school year 

c. One-quarter of the school year 

d. Less than a quarter of the school year 

e. Other (describe) 

4. Which of the following statements best describes the space used 
for teaching the subject at your school this year? (Circle one.) 

a. Dedicated room(s), with special equipment 

b. Dedicated room(s), no special equipment 

c. Gymnasium, auditorium, or cafeteria 

d. Regular classrooms only 

e. Other (specify) 

5. What is the position of the person(s) who teach(es) the subject? 
(Check all that apply. Count itinerant teachers as part time.) 

a. Full-time, certified (credentialed) specialist 

b. Part-time, certified (credentialed) specialist 

c. Classroom teacher 

d. Other faculty member (specify) 

e. Artist-in-Residence or teaching artist 

f. Volunteer 

6a. Does your school typically receive funds from any outside sources, 
including (but not limited to) parents groups or local businesses, to 
fund its education program in the subject? (Y= Yes, N = No) 

6b. If yes, approximately what percent of the budget designated for the 
subject comes from outside sources? 

7a. Does your district have a written curriculum guide in the subject 
that your teachers are expected to follow? (If no, skip questions 
7b and 7c.) 

7b. Is the curriculum guide aligned with your state's standards or the 
National Standards for Arts Education? (DK = Don't know) 

7c. Was the curriculum guide created or updated in the last 5 years?. .. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 



□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 



□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 



□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 



□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 



Y 



N 



Y 



% 



N 



% 



Y 



N 



% 



Y 



Y 



N 



Y N DK 

Y N DK 



Y N 

Y N DK 

Y N DK 



Y 



N 



Y N DK 

Y N DK 



Y N DK 

Y N DK 



C-6 



8. Which of the following statements, if any, accurately describe the way drama/theatre and dance/creative 
movement are being taught at your school this year? (Circle one on each line.) 

Yes 

a. Drama/theatre is taught as part of the English/language arts curriculum 

b. Drama/theatre activities and instruction are integrated into other areas of the curriculum 

c. Other (specify) 

d. Dance/creative movement is taught as part of the physical education program 

e. Dance/creative movement is taught as part of the music curriculum 

f. Dance/creative movement activities and instruction are integrated into other areas of the 
curriculum 

g. Other (specify) 

9. Please answer the following questions concerning the arts programs and arts staff at your school this year. 
(Circle one on each line.) 

Yes 

a. Is arts education included in any mission statements or goals of your school (e.g., yearly 
goals, School Improvement Plan)? 

b. Are arts specialists included on site-based management teams, 
school improvement teams, or leadership councils? 

c. Do arts specialists have input in the following aspects of the arts education program? 

1. Staff hiring 

2. Curriculum offered 

3. Allocation of arts funds 

d. Does your school conduct any standardized or district-wide assessments of student 
performance and achievement in the arts? 

e. Does your school principal observe and conduct evaluations of arts specialists in the same 
way that teachers in other curriculum areas are evaluated? 

f. Does your school principal evaluate the school's arts programs in the same way that other 
instructional programs are evaluated? 

g. Is there a curriculum specialist or program coordinator at the district level who is 
responsible for the curriculum and instructional programs offered in the arts? 

10. In general, to what extent do you think the following individuals at your school consider the arts an essential 
part of a high-quality education? (Circle one on each line J 



No 
2 
2 
2 

2 
2 

2 
2 



No 



2 
2 
2 



Individuals 



Not at all 



Small 
extent 



Moderate 
extent 



Great 
extent 



Cannot 
judge 



a. The administrators at the school 

b. The teaching staff (excluding arts specialists) 

c. The parents 



2 
2 
2 



3 
3 
3 



4 
4 
4 



5 
5 
5 



Yes No 

11a. Are there any school improvement initiatives related to arts education, or the integration of the 

arts with other academic subjects, currently underway in your school? 1 2 

11b. If yes, please describe 



12a. Does your school provide/sponsor any after-school activities for students that incorporate the 
arts? 



12b. If yes, please describe 



Yes 

1 



No 
2 



13a. Do you consider your school to be operating under site-based management? 

Yes 1 (Continue with question 13b.) No 2 (Skip to question 14.) 

13b. Which of the following management issues are site based? (Circle one on each line.) 

Yes No 

a. Staff hiring 1 2 

b. Curriculum design 1 2 

c. Budget 1 2 

C-7 



14. During the 1998-1999 school year, which of the following types of music instruction, or classes were offered at 
your school during the regular school day? For each type, indicate for which grades instruction was offered, 
and the approximate percent of the students in those grades who participated. 



a. 


General music 

Chorus 

Band 

Strings/orchestra 

Other (specify) 


Offered 
Yes No 

1 2 

1 2 

1 2 

1 2 

1 2 


Grades 
taught 


Percent of students 
who participated 


b. 






c. 






d. 






e. 







15. For each program or activity related to arts education listed below: 

In section A, indicate if your school sponsored each program or activity listed during the 1998-1999 school year. 

In section B, indicate the number your school sponsored. 

In section C, indicate all of the source(s) that were used to fund the program or activity. (Check all that apply.) 



Program/activity 



A. Sponsored? 



Yes 



No 



B. 

How 

many? 



C. Funding source? 



State or 

local arts 

agency 



State or 

federal 

education 

grant 



General 

school or 

district 

funds 



Parent 
group 
funds 



a. Artist-in-Residence/Artist-in-the-School 1 2 

b. Visiting artist(s) 1 2 

c. Field trips to art galleries or museums 

(Count each destination once.) 1 2 

d. Field trips to arts performances (Count each 
destination once.) 1 2 



□ 
□ 

□ 
□ 



□ 
□ 

□ 

□ 



□ 
□ 

□ 

□ 



□ 
□ 

□ 

□ 



1 7a. What was your school's total enrollment as of October 1 , 1 999? 

17b. How has this enrollment changed since the 1993-1994 school year? 

Decreased 1 About the same 2 Increased 3 

18. Compared to the 1993-1994 school year, please indicate whether or not each of the following aspects of your 
school's arts education program has changed. (Circle one on each line.) NOTE: If you are unable to 
provide this information because either the school did not exist 5 years ago or you were not at the school at 
that time, check the box and skip to question 19 Q 



Aspect of arts program 



Not 

available 

either time 



Decreased 
greatly 



Decreased 
slightly 



Remained 
the same 



Increased 
slightly 



Increased 
greatly 



a. Arts instruction time 1 

b. Number of arts staff 1 

c. Arts supplies and materials 1 

d. Percent of school budget designated for arts 
programs and activities 1 

e. Use of instructional materials produced by 
cultural institutions, such as museums, 
galleries, or orchestras 1 

f. Enrollment in arts electives, such as band 1 

g. Field trips to sites relevant to arts education .. 1 



2 
2 
2 



3 
3 
3 



4 

4 
4 



5 
5 
5 



6 
6 
6 



2 
2 
2 



3 
3 
3 



4 
4 
4 



5 
5 
5 



6 
6 
6 



19. During the 1998-1999 school year, what percent of your students were eligible for the federally funded free or 



reduced-price lunch program? 



% 



20. The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) may want to ask some schools to participate in a followup study 
on arts education at a later time. Does NEA have your school principal's permission to consider your school 
for a followup study? Yes 1 No 2 



C-8 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20208-5651 

SECONDARY SCHOOL ARTS EDUCATION SURVEY: FALL 1999 

FAST RESPONSE SURVEY SYSTEM 



FORM APPROVED 
O.M.B. NO.: 1850-0733 
EXPIRATION DATE: 07/2002 



This survey is authorized by law (P.L 103-382). While you are not required to respond, your cooperation is needed to make the results of this 
survey comprehensive, accurate, and timely. 



DEFINITIONS FOR THIS SURVEY: 

Artist-in-Residence — A visual, literary, or performing artist or folklorist — sometimes called Artist-in-the-School — who 
visits a school for an extended period (more than 1 week) for the purposes of teaching artistic techniques and concepts, 
conducting inservice teacher training, and/or consulting in the development of curricula. 

Creative writing — An instructional program that describes the process and techniques of original composition in various 
literary forms, such as short stories, plays, and poetry. 

Dance — An instructional program that prepares students to express themselves through movement in the performance of one 
or more of the dance disciplines, including ballet, modern, jazz, ethnic, and folk dance, and that describes dance as a 
cultural phenomenon. Includes instruction in choreography, dance history and criticism, and dance production. 

Drama/theatre - An instructional program that generally describes the study of dramatic works and their performance. Includes 
instruction in dramatic literature, dramatic styles and types, and the principles of organizing and producing plays. 

Music — An instructional program for the purpose of helping students learn to perform, create, and respond to (appreciate) 
music. Performance studies include voice, choir, and instrumental studies such as guitar, piano, band, and orchestra. 
Creating studies include music improvisation, arranging, and composition. Music classes typically foster appreciation by 
developing an understanding of music theory, criticism, and the historical development of music in various cultures. 

Visiting artist — A visual, literary, or performing artist or folklorist who visits a school to perform, demonstrate, or teach for a 
period of 1 week or less. 

Visual arts — An instructional program for the purpose of helping students learn to create and respond to the visual arts. 

Students create their own artwork in a range of media and processes. Art classes typically foster appreciation by developing 
an understanding of art history and criticism and the roles visual arts play within various cultures, times, and places. 



AFFIX LABEL HERE 



IF ABOVE INFORMATION IS INCORRECT, PLEASE MAKE CORRECTIONS DIRECTLY ON LABEL. 
Name of person completing form: Telephone: 



Title/position :_ 



Best days and times to reach you (in case of questions):. 
E-mail: 



Grades taught at this school: Low grade 



High grade_ 



PLEASE RETURN COMPLETED FORM TO: 

WESTAT 

1650 Research Boulevard 

Rockville, Maryland 20850 

Attention: 716603-Carey 



IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS, CONTACT: 

Nancy Carey 
800-937-8281, ext. 4467 
Fax: 800-254-0984 
E-mail: careyn1@westat.com 



According to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, no persons are required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a valid 
OMB control number. The valid OMB control number for this information collection is 1850-0733 The time required to complete this information 
collection is estimated to average 30 minutes per response, including the time to review instructions, search existing data resources, gather the 
data needed, and complete and review the information collected. If you have any comments concerning the accuracy of the time estimate(s) or 
suggestions for improving this form, please write to: U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. 20202-4651. If you have comments or 
concerns regarding the status of your individual submission of this form, write directly to: National Center for Education Statistics, 555 New 
Jersey Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20208. 

FRSS Form No. 67, 7/2002 

C-9 



PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS. 

Questions 1 through 8 of this questionnaire ask a series of questions about instruction at your school in the 
following arts subjects: visual arts, music, dance, and drama/theatre. Before answering the questions, please 
refer to the definitions on the cover. Then answer question 1 for the first subject listed. If the answer to question 
1 is "Yes," then proceed with questions 2 through 8 for that subject. If the answer to question 1 is "No," then go to 
the subject in the next column and answer question 1. Then proceed with Questions 2 through 8 for that subject. 



Questions 


Visual 
arts 


Music 


Dance 


Drama/ 
theatre 


1 . Is this arts subject taught at your school during the regular school 
day? (Y= Yes, N = No) 


Y N 


Y N 


Y N 


Y N 


2. How many different courses did your school offer in this 
subject during the 1998-1999 school year? (Count 
different sections of the same course as one course.) 


















3. Approximately how many students at your school were enrolled in 
classes in the subject during the 1998-1999 school year? 




















4. How many full-time teachers on your 1998-1999 school staff 

taught courses in the subject? 


















5. How many part-time teachers on your 1998-1999 school staff 
taught courses in the subject? (Count itinerant teachers as part 
time.) 


















6. Which of the following statements best describes the space used 
for teaching the subject at your school this year? (Circle one.) 

a. Dedicated room(s), with special equipment 


1 
2 
3 
4 


1 
2 
3 
4 


1 
2 

3 
4 


1 
2 
3 
4 


b. Dedicated room(s), no special equipment 


c. Gymnasium, auditorium, or cafeteria 

d. Other (specify) 




7a. Does your school typically receive funds from any outside sources, 
including (but not limited to) parents groups, Booster clubs, or local 
businesses, to fund its education program in the subject? 

7b. If yes, approximately what percent of the budget designated for the 
subject comes from outside sources? 


Y N 

% 


Y N 

% 


Y N 

% 


Y N 

% 


8a. Does your district have a written curriculum guide in the subject 
that your teachers are expected to follow? (If no, skip questions 
8b and 8c.) 


Y N 

Y N DK 

Y N DK 


Y N 

Y N DK 

Y N DK 


Y N 

Y N DK 

Y N DK 


Y N 

Y N DK 

Y N DK 


8b. Is the curriculum aligned with your state's standards or the 

National Standards for Arts Education? (DK = Don't know) 


8c. Was the curriculum guide created or updated in the last 5 years?... 



9. Which of the following statements, if any, accurately describe the way creative writing is taught at your school 
this year? (Circle one on each line.) 

Yes No 

a. Separate courses in creative writing, as defined on the cover, are taught at this school 1 2 

b. Processes and techniques in creative writing are taught in courses offered by the English 

department 1 2 

c. Creative writing activities and instruction are integrated into other areas of the curriculum 1 2 

d. Other (specify) 1 2 



C-10 



10. Please answer the following questions concerning the arts programs and arts staff at your school this year. 



11. 



Yes 



No 



a. Is arts education included in any mission statements or goals of your school (e.g., yearly 
goals, School Improvement Plan)? 

b. Are arts teachers included on site-based management teams, 
school improvement teams, or leadership councils? 

c. Do arts teachers have input in the following aspects of the arts education program? 

1. Staff hiring 1 2 

2. Curriculum offered 1 2 

3. Allocation of arts funds 1 2 

d. Does your school conduct any standardized or district-wide assessments of student 
performance and achievement in the arts? 

e. Does your school principal observe and conduct evaluations of arts teachers in the same 
way that teachers in other curriculum areas are evaluated? 

f. Does your school principal evaluate your school's arts programs in the same way that other 
instructional programs are evaluated? 

g. Is there a curriculum specialist or program coordinator at the district level who is 
responsible for the curriculum and instructional programs offered in the arts? 

In general, to what extent do you think the following individuals at your school consider the arts an essential 
part of a high-quality education? (Circle one on each line.) 



Individuals 



Not at all 



Small 
extent 



Moderate 
extent 



Great 
extent 



Cannot 
judge 



a. The administrators 

b. The teaching staff (excluding arts teachers) . 

c. The parents 



2 
2 
2 



3 
3 
3 



4 
4 
4 



5 
5 
5 



12a. Are there any school improvement initiatives related to arts education, or the integration of the 
arts with other academic subjects, currently underway in your school? 



12b. If yes, please describe. 



Yes 

1 



No 
2 



13a. Does your school provide/sponsor any after-school activities for students that incorporate the 
arts? 



13b. If yes, please describe. 



14a. 
14b. 
15a. 
15b. 

16a. 



Is coursework in the arts a specific requirement for graduation in your district this year? 
If yes, how many credits are required? 



Are grades in arts classes included in the calculation of students' GPA? 



Do these grades receive the same weight in the calculation as grades in other academic 
subjects? 

Do you consider your school to be operating under site-based management? 

Yes 1 (Continue with question 16b.) No 2 (Skip to question 18a.) 



2 
2 



16b. Which of the following management issues are site based? (Circle one on each line.) 



a. Staff hiring 

b. Curriculum design. 

c. Budget 



Yes 


No 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 



C-ll 



1 8a. During the 1 998-1 999 school year, did any students at your school take arts classes that were taught at 
another location, but were offered during the regular school day and were considered part of your school's 
educational program? 

Yes 1 No 2 (Skip to question 20.) 

How many students did so? 



18b. 
18c. 



20. 



In which of the following locations were these classes offered? (Circle one on each line.) 



Yes 



a. 
b. 
c. 
d. 
e. 



Other schools 

Performing arts studios or stages 

Museums or galleries 

Local arts centers 

Other (specify) 



No 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



For each program or activity related to arts education listed below: 
In section A, indicate if your school sponsored the program or activity during the 1998-1999 school year. 
In section B, indicate the number your school sponsored. 
In section C, indicate all of the source(s) that were used to fund the program or activity. (Check all that 

apply) 



Program/activity 



A. Sponsored? 



Yes 



No 



B. 

How 

many? 



State or 

local arts 

agency 



C. Funding source? 



State or 

federal 

education 

grant 



General 

school or 

district 

funds 



Parent 
group 
funds 



22. 



a. Artist-in-Residence/Artist-in-the-School 1 

b. Visiting artist(s) 1 

c. Field trips to art galleries or museums 

(Count each destination once.) 1 

d. Field trips to arts performances (Count each 
destination once.) 1 



2 
2 



□ 
□ 

□ 

□ 



□ 
□ 

□ 

□ 



□ 
□ 

□ 

□ 



□ 
□ 

□ 

□ 



21a. What was your school's total enrollment as of October 1, 1999? 

21b. How has this total enrollment changed since the 1993-1994 school year? 

Decreased 1 

Aboutthe same 2 

Increased 3 



Compared to the 1993-1994 school year, please indicate whether or not each of the following aspects of your 
school's arts education program has changed. (Circle one on each line.) NOTE: If you are unable to provide 
this information because either the school did not exist 5 years ago or you were not at the school at that time, 
check the box and skip to question 23 Q 



Aspect of arts program 



Not 

available 

either time 



Decreased 
greatly 



Decreased 
slightly 



Remained 
the same 



Increased 
slightly 



Increased 
greatly 



23. 



a. Number of arts courses 1 

b. Number of arts staff 1 

c. Allocation of arts supplies and materials 1 

d. Percent of school budget designated for 

arts programs and activities 1 

e. Use of instructional materials produced by 
cultural institutions, such as museums, 
galleries, or orchestras 1 

f. Enrollment in arts classes 1 

g. Field trips to sites relevant to arts education.. 1 



2 
2 
2 



3 
3 
3 



4 
4 
4 



5 
5 
5 



6 
6 
6 



2 
2 
2 



3 
3 
3 



4 
4 
4 



5 
5 
5 



6 
6 
6 



During the 1998-1999 school year, what percent of your students were eligible for the federally funded free or 
reduced-price lunch program? % 



24. The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) may want to ask some schools to participate in a followup study 
on arts education at a later time. Does NEA have your school principal's permission to consider your school 
for a followup study? Yes 1 No 2 



C-12 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20208-5651 



SURVEY OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL MUSIC SPECIALISTS 



FAST RESPONSE SURVEY SYSTEM 



FORM APPROVED 
O.M.B. NO.: 1850-0733 
EXPIRATION DATE: 07/2002 



This survey is authorized by law (P.L. 103-382). While you are not required to respond, your cooperation is needed to make the results of this 
survey comprehensive, accurate, and timely. 



Arts instruction — the study of creative works in music, dance, drama/theatre, or visual arts and the process of producing them. 

Arts specialist — an education professional with a teaching certificate in an arts discipline, such as music, dance, drama/theatre, 
or visual arts, who provides separate instruction in that discipline. 



IF ABOVE INFORMATION IS INCORRECT, PLEASE MAKE CORRECTIONS DIRECTLY ON LABEL. 



Name of person completing this form: 



Title/position:_ 






Are you a full-time teacher? Yes 1 No 2 

Telephone: 



E-mail: 



Best days and times to reach you (in case of questions):. 



THANK YOU. PLEASE KEEP A COPY OF THIS QUESTIONNAIRE FOR YOUR RECORDS. 



PLEASE RETURN COMPLETED FORM TO: 

Carey (716616) 

WESTAT 

1650 Research Boulevard 

Rockville, Maryland 20850 



IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS, CONTACT: 

Nancy Carey at Westat 

800-937-8281, ext. 4467 or 301-294-4467 

Fax: 800-254-0984 

E-mail: careyn1@westat.com 



According to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, no persons are required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a valid 
OMB control number. The valid OMB control number for this information collection is 1850-0733. The time required to complete this information 
collection is estimated to average 30 minutes per response, including the time to review instructions, search existing data resources, gather the 
data needed, and complete and review the information collected. If you have any comments concerning the accuracy of the time estimate(s) or 
suggestions for improving this form, please write to: U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. 20202-4651. If you have comments or 
concerns regarding the status of your individual submission of this form, write directly to: National Center for Education Statistics, 555 New 
Jersey Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20208. 

FRSS Form No. 77, 02/2000 



C-13 



DIRECTIONS: This questionnaire is intended for teachers who primarily teach music in elementary schools. If 
you currently have some other teaching assignment, do not continue. Check the box □, complete the 
respondent section on the front of the questionnaire, and return it to Westat. Thank you. 

1a. How do you classify your current teaching arrangement? (Circle only one number.) 



Teach music full time. 
Other (specify) 



1 
3 



Teach music part time 2 



1b. At how many schools do you teach music? 

2. What grades do you teach at your currently assigned school(s)? (Circle all that apply.) 

PKK1 2345678 

3. Please check the box(es) next to the teaching certificate(s) you hold. Then indicate the type of certificate that it is by 
circling one number. 

Regular, standard, Provisional, temporary, 

or professional Probationary or emergency 



a. General elementary education f 

b. Music education 

c. Other (specify) J 



2 
2 
2 



3 
3 
3 



Please check the box(es) next to the degree(s) you hold, and write in the year you received the degree(s) and your 
major and minor fields of study for each degree. 



Degree 


Year 


Major field 


Minor field 


Bachelor's □ 








Master's □ 








Doctorate □ 








Other □ 
(specify) 









5a. Including this school year, how many years have you been employed as a teacher? 

(Include years spent teaching both full and part time, and in both public and private schools. Exclude time spent 
student teaching or as a teacher's aide.) 

5b. How many years have you taught music? 



6. Approximately how many more years do you plan to be teaching? 



7. Consider all of the professional development activities in which you participated in the last 12 months (excluding 
training received as a student teacher). In Column A, indicate how many total hours, if any, you spent in activities in 
which the following content areas were a major focus. In Column B, for any content area in which you had any 
professional development activities in the last 12 months, indicate to what extent you believe it has improved your 
classroom teaching. 



Activities designed for music teachers 

a. Applied study in performing music 

b. Applied study in improvising, arranging, or composing 
music 

c. Developing knowledge about music (e.g., historical, 
cultural, analytical) 

d. Connecting music learning with other subject areas 

e. Integrating educational technologies into music 
instruction 

Activities designed for all teachers 

f. New methods of teaching (e.g., cooperative learning) .. 

g. Incorporating state or district standards into instruction 
h. Student performance assessment 

C-14 



A. Total hours 


B. 


mproved my teaching 





1-8 


More 
than 8 


Not at 
all 


Small 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 


Great 
extent 


(Circl 


a one pet 

2 

2 

2 
2 

2 

2 
2 
2 


line.) 

3 

3 

3 
3 

3 

3 
3 
3 




2 

2 

2 
2 

2 

2 
2 
2 


3 

3 

3 
3 

3 

3 
3 
3 


4 

4 

4 
4 

4 

4 
4 
4 



8. During a typical school day, to how many different classes of students do you teach music 
at the school named on the cover of this questionnaire? 

9. During a typical school week, to how many different classes of students do you teach music across all schools? 
(Include classes in all schools in which you teach. Count any class that meets more than once a week as one class 
of students.) 

10. In total, to how many students are you currently teaching music? (Include all schools in which you teach.) 

11. How much time during regular school hours (i.e., while students are in attendance) do you have designated as 
planning or preparation time? Please write in the total number of hours you have designated for planning during a 
typical week of school. (Include all schools in which you teach.) 



Please answer questions 12 through 17 for the school that is named on the cover of this questionnaire. 

12. In the last 12 months, how frequently have you participated in the following activities related to your teaching at this 
school? (Circle one on each line.) 



Never 



a. Common planning period with regular classroom teachers 

b. Common planning period with other arts specialists at this school. 

c. Consulting with classroom teachers to help them integrate music 
into a lesson or unit of study that they teach 

d. Collaborating with other teachers on designing and teaching an 
interdisciplinary lesson or unit of study that includes music 

e. Sharing ideas about teaching with other teachers outside your 
assigned school(s) 

f. Visiting classrooms of colleagues who teach music 

g. Participating in Site-based Management or School Improvement 
Teams or Leadership Councils 

h. Providing input in the preparation of Individual Education Plans 
(lEPs) for students with special needs 



A few 

times a 

year 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 
2 

2 

2 



Once a 
month 

3 
3 

3 

3 

3 
3 

3 

3 



2 to 3 
times a 
month 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 
4 

4 

4 



At least 

once a 

week 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 
5 

5 

5 



13. 



Do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about music instruction at this school? (Circle one 
on each line.) 

Strongly 
disagree 

a. Parents support me in my efforts to educate their children 1 

b. The administration supports me in my work 1 

c. Other teachers consider music an important part of the school's 

curriculum 12 3 4 

d. The school administrators and teachers are in favor of 

interdisciplinary instruction that includes music 12 3 4 

e. Students are motivated to do well in music class 12 3 4 



Somewhat 


Somewhat 


Strongly 


disagree 
2 


agree 

3 


agree 

4 


2 


3 


4 



14. Which of the following statements describe your instructional program in music at this school? (Circle one on each 
line.) 



Yes 



a. It is based on a written, sequential, local (or district) curriculum guide 

b. It is aligned with your state's standards or the National Standards for Arts Education 

c. It is integrated with other arts subjects 

d. It is integrated with other academic subjects 

e. Other (specify) 



No 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



Don't 
know 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



C-15 



1 5. How adequate is the support for teaching music at this school in each of the following areas? (Circle one on each 
line.) Not Minimally Moderately Completely 

at all adequate adequate adequate 

a. Instructional time with students 12 3 4 

b. Time for individual or collaborative planning 12 3 4 

c. Facilities — Dedicated room or space for music instruction 12 3 4 

d. Instructional resources — Materials and supplies for music 
instruction, such as sheet music, tapes and CDs, textbooks, CD- 
ROMs, videotapes, and software 12 3 4 

e. Classroom instruments — Instruments typically used by students in 
the general music classroom, such as simple percussion, mallet 

keyboards, and chorded zithers 12 3 4 

f. Orchestra and band instruments — Instruments available for 
students wishing to participate in the school string/orchestra or 
band program. If your school has no band or strings program, 

check the box □ and continue 12 3 4 

g. Classroom equipment — Equipment typically used by teachers in 
the general music classroom, such as a piano and a stereo system 

with a CD player and tape recording/playback capability 12 3 4 

h. Technologies — Electronic equipment used in the study and 
creation of music, such as computers, MIDI keyboards, and 
sequencers 12 3 4 

16. In general, how much emphasis do you give to each of the following goals or objectives of student learning at this 
school? (Circle one on each line.) 

a. Singing a varied repertoire of music 

b. Performing a varied repertoire of music on a range of instruments .. 

c. Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments 

d. Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines 

e. Reading and notating music 

f. Listening to, analyzing, and describing music 

g. Evaluating music and music performances 

n. Learning about the expressive possibilities of music (i.e., 

conveying feelings, ideas, and meaning) 12 3 4 

i. Making connections between music, the other arts, and disciplines 

outside the arts 1 2 3 4 

j. Understanding music in relation to history and cultures 12 3 4 

17. To what extent, if any, do you use the following types of assessment to determine student progress and achievement 
in music at this school? (Circle one on each line.) If you do no formal assessment in music, check the box [~J and 
skip to question 18. 

a. Observation 

b. Selected-response assessments (i.e., multiple choice, matching).... 

c. Assessments requiring short written answers or essays 

d. Performance tasks or projects 

e. Portfolio collection of student work 

f. Developed rubrics 



18. 



Jo 


Minor 


Moderate 


Major 


hasis 


emphasis 


emphasis 


emphasis 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 



music at this time? (Circle one on each line.) 



a. Provide instruction in a musical instrument or voice 

b. Perform as a soloist or member of an ensemble 

c. Compose or arrange music 

d. Conduct community or other ensembles 

e. Attend live musical performances 

f. Study, critique, or write about music 

g. Provide arts leadership in your community or state 

C-16 



Not 


Small 


Moderate 


Great 


at all 


extent 


extent 


extent 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


) each 


of the following activities related to 


Not 


Small 


Moderate 


Great 


at all 


extent 


extent 


extent 




2 


3 


4 




2 


3 


4 




2 


3 


4 




2 


3 


4 




2 


3 


4 




2 


3 


4 




2 


3 


4 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20208-5651 



SURVEY OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL VISUAL ARTS SPECIALISTS 



FAST RESPONSE SURVEY SYSTEM 



FORM APPROVED 
O.M.B. NO.: 1850-0733 
EXPIRATION DATE: 07/2002 



This survey is authorized by law (P.L. 103-382). While you are not required to respond, your cooperation is needed to make the results of this 
survey comprehensive, accurate, and timely. 



Arts instruction — the study of creative works in music, dance, drama/theatre, or visual arts and the process of producing them. 

Arts specialist — an education professional with a teaching certificate in an arts discipline, such as music, dance, drama/theatre, 
or visual arts, who provides separate instruction in that discipline. 



IF ABOVE INFORMATION IS INCORRECT, PLEASE MAKE CORRECTIONS DIRECTLY ON LABEL. 



Name of person completing this form: 



Title/position: 



Are you a full-time teacher? Yes 1 No 2 



Telephone: 



E-mail: 



Best days and times to reach you (in case of questions): 



THANK YOU. PLEASE KEEP A COPY OF THIS QUESTIONNAIRE FOR YOUR RECORDS. 



PLEASE RETURN COMPLETED FORM TO: 

Carey (716616) 

WESTAT 

1650 Research Boulevard 

Rockville, Maryland 20850 



IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS, CONTACT: 

Nancy Carey at Westat 

800-937-8281 , ext. 4467 or 301-294-4467 

Fax: 800-254-0984 

E-mail: careyn1@westat.com 



According to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, no persons are required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a valid 
OMB control number. The valid OMB control number for this information collection is 1850-0733. The time required to complete this information 
collection is estimated to average 30 minutes per response, including the time to review instructions, search existing data resources, gather the 
data needed, and complete and review the information collected. If you have any comments concerning the accuracy of the time estimate(s) or 
suggestions for improving this form, please write to: U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. 20202-4651 . If you have comments or 
concerns regarding the status of your individual submission of this form, write directly to: National Center for Education Statistics, 555 New 
Jersey Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20208. 

FRSS Form No. 77, 02/2000 



C-17 



DIRECTIONS: This questionnaire is intended for teachers who primarily teach visual arts in elementary schools. 
If you currently have some other teaching assignment, do not continue. Check the box □, complete the 
respondent section on the front of the questionnaire, and return it to Westat. Thank you. 

1a. How do you classify your current teaching arrangement? (Circle only one number.) 

Teach visual arts full time 1 Teach visual arts part time 2 

Other (specify) 3 

1b. At how many schools do you teach visual arts? 

2. What grades do you teach at your currently assigned school(s)? (Circle all that apply.) 

PKK1 2345678 

3. Please check the box(es) next to the teaching certificate(s) you hold. Then indicate the type of certificate that it is by 
circling one number. 

Regular, standard, Provisional, temporary, 

or professional Probationary or emergency 

a. General elementary education □ 1 2 3 

b. Arteducation D 1 2 3 

c. Other (specify) □ 1 2 3 

4. Please check the box(es) next to the degree(s) you hold, and write in the year you received the degree(s) and your 
major and minor fields of study for each degree. 



Degree 


Year 


Major field 


Minor field 


Bachelor's □ 








Master's R 








Doctorate H 








Other □ 
(specify) 









5a. Including this school year, how many years have you been employed as a teacher? 

(Include years spent teaching both full and part time, and in both public and private schools. Exclude time spent 
student teaching or as a teacher's aide.) 

5b. How many years have you taught visual arts? 

6. Approximately how many more years do you plan to be teaching? 



Consider all of the professional development activities in which you participated in the last 12 months (excluding 
training as a student teacher). In Column A, indicate how many total hours, if any, you spent in activities in which 
the following content areas were a major focus. In Column B, for any content area in which you had any 
professional development activities in the last 12 months, indicate to what extent you believe it has improved your 
classroom teaching. 



Activities designed for visual arts teachers 

a. Applied study in art studio (e.g., painting, photography) . 

b. Developing knowledge about visual arts (e.g., historical, 
cultural, analytical) 

c. Connecting visual arts learning with other subject areas 

d. Integrating educational technologies into visual arts 
instruction 

Activities designed for all teachers 

e. New methods of teaching (e.g., cooperative learning) .... 

f. Incorporating state or district standards into instruction .. 

g. Student performance assessment 

C-18 



A. 


Total hours 


B. 


mproved my teaching 





1-8 


More 
than 8 


Not at 
all 


Small 
extent 


Moderate 
extent 


Great 
extent 


(Circh 


3 one pei 


■ line.) 










1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


4 



8. During a typical school day, to how many different classes of students do you teach visual arts 
at the school named on the cover of this questionnaire? 

9. During a typical school week, to how many different classes of students do you teach visual arts across all 
schools? (Include classes in all schools in which you teach. Count any class that meets more than once a week as 
one class of students.) 

10. In total, to how many students are you currently teaching visual arts? (Include all schools in which you teach.) 



11. How much time during regular school hours (i.e., while students are in attendance) do you have designated as 
planning or preparation time? Please write in the total number of hours you have designated for planning during a 
typical week of school. (Include all schools in which you teach.) 

Please answer questions 12 through 17 for the school that is named on the cover of the questionnaire. 



12. 



13. 



In the last 12 months, how frequently have you participated in the following activities related to your teaching at this 
school? (Circle one on each line.) 



Never 



a. Common planning period with regular classroom teachers 

b. Common planning period with other arts specialists at this school.. 

c. Consulting with classroom teachers to help them integrate 
visual arts into a lesson or unit of study that they teach 

d. Collaborating with other teachers on designing and teaching an 
interdisciplinary lesson or unit of study that includes visual arts 

e. Sharing ideas about teaching with other teachers outside your 

assigned school(s) 

Visiting classrooms of colleagues who teach visual arts 

Participating in Site-based Management or School Improvement 

Teams or Leadership Councils 

Providing input in the preparation of Individual Education Plans 
(lEPs) for students with special needs 



f. 
9- 

h. 



A few 


Once a 
month 


2 to 3 


At least 


times a 
year 


times a 
month 


once a 
week 


2 


3 


4 


5 


2 


3 


4 


5 



2 
2 



3 
3 



4 
4 

4 



5 
5 



Do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about instruction in visual arts at this school? (Circle 
one on each line.) 



a. 
b. 
c. 



Parents support me in my efforts to educate their children... 

The administration supports me in my work 

Other teachers consider visual arts an important part of the 

school's curriculum 

The school administrators and teachers are in favor of 

interdisciplinary instruction that includes visual arts 

Students are motivated to do well in art class 



Strongly 


Somewhat 


Somewhat 


Strongly 


disagree 


disagree 


agree 


agree 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 



2 
2 



3 
3 



4 
4 



14. Which of the following statements describe your instructional program in visual arts at this school? (Circle one on 



each line.) 



a. It is based on a written, sequential, local (or district) curriculum guide 

b. It is aligned with your state's standards or the National Standards for Arts Education 

c. It is integrated with other arts subjects 

d. It is integrated with other academic subjects 

e. Other (specify) 



Yes 



No 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



Don't 
know 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



C-19 



15. How adequate is the support for teaching visual arts at this school in each of the following areas? (Circle one on 
each line.) 

Not Minimally Moderately Completely 

at all adequate adequate adequate 

a. Instructional time with students 12 3 4 

b. Time for individual or collaborative planning 12 3 4 

c. Facilities — Dedicated room or space for visual arts instruction 12 3 4 

d. Instructional resources — Reusable resources used for instruction 
in visual arts, such as art prints, slides, textbooks, videotapes, art 

periodicals, and projectors 12 3 4 

e. Art materials — Expendable resources such as paint, ink, clay, 

paper, cardboard, film, and wood 12 3 4 

f. Art tools — Equipment used to create and learn about visual arts, 

such as brushes, scissors, brayers, and clay tools 12 3 4 

g. Classroom equipment— Equipment used to create and learn 
about visual arts, such as cameras, kilns, display cases and 

display boards, and easels 12 3 4 

h. Technologies — Electronic equipment used in the study and 
creation of art, such as computers, scanners, printers, and video 

equipment 12 3 4 

16. In general, how much emphasis do you give to each of the following goals or objectives of student learning at this 
school? (Circle one on each line.) 

No Minor Moderate Major 

emphasis emphasis emphasis emphasis 

a. Creating works in a broad range of art, including the 

fine arts, communication and design arts, folk arts, and crafts 12 3 4 

b. Understanding and applying various media, techniques, 

and processes 12 3 4 

c. Using knowledge of elements, functions, and principles of art 12 3 4 

d. Choosing and evaluating a range of subject matter, symbols, 

and ideas 12 3 4 

e. Learning about the expressive possibilities of visual arts 

(i.e., conveying feelings, ideas, and meaning) 12 3 4 

f. Reflecting upon and assessing the characteristics and 

merits of their work and the work of others 12 3 4 

g. Making connections between visual arts, the other arts, and 

disciplines outside the arts 1 2 3 4 

h. Understanding the visual arts in relation to history and cultures 12 3 4 

17. To what extent, if any, do you use the following types of assessment to determine student progress and achievement 
in visual arts at this school? (Circle one on each line.) If you do no formal assessment in visual arts, check the box 
□ and skip to question 18. 

Not Small Moderate Great 

at all extent extent extent 

a. Observation 12 3 4 

b. Selected-response assessments (i.e., multiple choice, matching).. 12 3 4 

c. Assessments requiring short written answers or essays 12 3 4 

d. Performance tasks or projects 12 3 4 

e. Portfolio collection of student work 12 3 4 

f. Developed rubrics 12 3 4 

18. Outside of your school duties, to what extent, if any, do you participate in each of the following activities related to 
visual arts at this time? (Circle one on each line.) 

Not Small Moderate Great 

at all extent extent extent 

a. Teach art at a studio or gallery 12 3 4 

b. Create works of art 12 3 4 

c. Exhibit works of art 12 3 4 

d. View and respond to original works of art at museums or galleries 12 3 4 

e. Study, critique, or write about art 12 3 4 

f. Provide arts leadership in your community or state 12 3 4 

C-20 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20208-5651 



ARTS SURVEY OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CLASSROOM TEACHERS 



FAST RESPONSE SURVEY SYSTEM 



FORM APPROVED 
O.M.B. NO.: 1850-0733 
EXPIRATION DATE: 07/2002 



This survey is authorized by law (P.L. 103-382). While you are not required to respond, your cooperation is needed to make the results of this 
survey comprehensive, accurate, and timely. 



Arts instruction — the study of creative works in music, dance, drama/theatre, or visual arts and the process of producing them. 

Arts specialist — an education professional with a teaching certificate in an arts discipline, such as music, dance, drama/theatre, 
or visual arts, who provides separate instruction in that discipline. 



IF ABOVE INFORMATION IS INCORRECT, PLEASE MAKE CORRECTIONS DIRECTLY ON LABEL. 



Name of person completing this form: 



Title/position:. 



Are you a full-time teacher? Yes 1 No 2 



Telephone: 



E-mail: 



Best days and times to reach you (in case of questions): 



THANK YOU. PLEASE KEEP A COPY OF THIS QUESTIONNAIRE FOR YOUR RECORDS. 



PLEASE RETURN COMPLETED FORM TO: 

Carey (716616) 

WESTAT 

1650 Research Boulevard 

Rockville, Maryland 20850 



IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS, CONTACT: 

Nancy Carey at Westat 

800-937-8281, ext. 4467 or 301-294-4467 

Fax: 800-254-0984 

E-mail: careyn1@westat.com 



According to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, no persons are required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a valid 
OMB control number. The valid OMB control number for this information collection is 1850-0733. The time required to complete this information 
collection is estimated to average 30 minutes per response, including the time to review instructions, search existing data resources, gather the 
data needed, and complete and review the information collected. If you have any comments concerning the accuracy of the time estimate(s) or 
suggestions for improving this form, please write to: U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. 20202-4651. If you have comments or 
concerns regarding the status of your individual submission of this form, write directly to: National Center for Education Statistics, 555 New 
Jersey Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20208. 

FRSS Form No. 77, 02/2000 



C-21 



DIRECTIONS: You should complete this questionnaire if you are a teacher of a self-contained classroom in an 
elementary school (i.e., you teach all or most academic subjects to the same group of students all or most of the 
day). If you currently have some other teaching assignment, do not continue. Check the box [3 complete the 
respondent section on the front of the questionnaire, and return it to Westat. Thank you. 



1. 



4. 



What grades do you currently teach at this school? (Circle all that apply.) 
PK K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 



8 



Do you have a general elementary or secondary teaching certificate in the state in which you teach? (Circle one 
number.) 



Yes 



1 



No 2 ( Skip to question 4.) 



3. What type of teaching certificate do you hold? (Circle one number.) 

a. Regular, standard, or professional certificate 

b. Probationary certificate 

c. Provisional, temporary, or emergency certificate 



1 
2 
3 



Please check the box(es) next to the degree(s) you hold, and write in the year you received the degree(s). If your 
major or minor field of study was an arts subject, please indicate this and write the subject in the space provided. 



Degree 


Year 


Arts major or 
minor? 


Arts subject 


Yes 


No 


Bachelor's □ 




1 


2 




Master's □ 




1 


2 




Doctorate □ 




1 


2 




Other □ 
(specify) 




1 


2 





5. Including this school year, how many years have you been employed as a teacher? 

(Include years spent teaching both full and part time, and in both public and private schools. Exclude time spent 
student teaching or as a teacher's aide.) 

6. Approximately how many more years do you plan to be teaching? 

7. Consider all of the professional development activities in which you participated in the last 12 months (excluding 
training as a student teacher). In Column A, indicate how many total hours, if any, you spent in activities in which 
the following content areas were a major focus. In Column B, for any content area in which you had any professional 
development in the last 12 months, indicate to what extent you believe it has improved your classroom teaching. 



Activities focusing on arts instruction 

a. Applied study in one of the arts or arts education 

b. Developing knowledge about the arts (e.g., historical, 
cultural, analytical) 

c. Connecting arts learning with other subject areas 

Activities designed for all teachers 

d. New methods of teaching (e.g., cooperative learning).. 

e. Incorporating state or district standards into instruction 

f. Student performance assessment 

g. Integrating educational technologies into instruction 



A. Total hours 


B. Improved my teaching 





1-8 


More 
than 8 


Not at 
all 


Small 
extent 


Moder- 
ate 
extent 


Great 
extent 


(Circl 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 


b one pei 

2 

2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 


■ line.) 

3 

3 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 


1 

1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 


2 

2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 


3 

3 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 


4 

4 
4 

4 
4 
4 
4 



C-22 



8. How many students are enrolled in your self-contained class? 



9. How much time during regular school hours (i.e., while students are in attendance) do you have designated as 
planning or preparation time? Please write in the total number of hours you have designated for planning during a 
typical week of school. If you have no designated planning time, check the box □ and skip to question 11. 
Hours 



10. How are your students occupied during your designated planning or preparation time? (Circle one on each line.) 

Yes No 

a. Inmusicclass 1 2 

b. In visual arts class 1 2 

c. In physical education/health class 1 2 

d. In some other educational program or activity 

(specify) 1 2 



11. 



In the last 12 months, how frequently have you participated in the following activities related to your teaching? 
(Circle one on each line.) If there is neither a visual arts nor a music specialist at this school, check the box □ and 
go to the second part of this question (1 1e). 



Never 



A few 

times a 

year 



Once a 
month 



2 to 3 


At least 


times a 


once a 


month 


week 



Activities involving arts specialists 

a. Common planning period with the arts specialist(s) at this 

school 

b. Seeking help from the arts specialist(s) about how to integrate 
the arts into a lesson or unit of study that you teach 

c. Collaborating with the arts specialist(s) on designing and teaching 
an interdisciplinary lesson or unit of study that includes the arts 

d. Attending/observing classes that the arts specialist(s) 
teach(es) to your students 

Other collaborative or leadership activities 

e. Common planning period with other classroom teachers 

f. Sharing ideas about teaching with other teachers outside this 
school 

g. Participating in Site-based Management or School Improvement 
Teams or Leadership Councils 

h. Providing input in the preparation of Individual Education Plans 
(lEPs) for students with special needs 

12. Do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about arts instruction at this school? (Circle one on 
each line.) 

Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly 
disagree disagree agree agree 

a. Parents support the arts instruction and arts activities in which 
their children participate 

b. The administration emphasizes the importance of the arts in 
children's education 

c. I consider instruction in the arts an important part of the school's 
curriculum 

d. The school administrators and teachers are in favor of 
interdisciplinary instruction that includes the arts 

e. Students look forward to instruction or activities that involve the arts 

f. Arts specialists should be responsible for arts instruction 



1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 



C-23 



13. Do you include arts instruction in any aspect of your classroom instructional program? 

Yes 1 (Continue with question 1 4.) 

No 2 (Skip to question 17.) 

14. To what extent, if any, do each of the following statements describe your instructional program in the arts in your 
classroom? (Circle one on each line.) 



Not 
all 



a. I try to incorporate music into instruction in other subject areas 

b. I try to incorporate visual arts into instruction in other subject areas 

c. I try to incorporate drama/theatre into instruction in other subject areas 

d. I try to incorporate dance into instruction in other subject areas 

e. I teach thematic units that integrate various subjects, including the arts 

f. I use pre-packaged curriculum materials or textbooks to teach the arts. 

g. Other (specify) 



15. Is the arts curriculum you teach in your classroom... (Circle one on each line.) 

a. Based on a written, sequential, local (or district) curriculum guide? 

b. Aligned with your state's standards or the National Standards for Arts Education? 

c. Integrated with other academic subjects? 



Small 
extent 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 



Yes 



Moderate 
extent 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



Great 
extent 

4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



No 

2 
2 
2 



Don't 
know 

3 
3 
3 



16. To what extent, if any, do you use the following types of assessment to determine student progress and achievement 
in the arts in your classroom? (Circle one on each line.) If you do no formal assessment in the arts, check the box 
[_] and skip to question 17. 



a. Observation 

b. Selected-response assessments (i.e., multiple choice, matching) 

c. Assessments requiring short written answers or essays 

d. Performance tasks or projects 

e. Portfolio collection of student work 

f. Developed rubrics 

17. Outside of your school duties, to what extent, if any, do you participate in each of the following activities related to the 
arts at this time? (Circle one on each line.) 



Not 


Small 


Moderate 


Great 


at all 


extent 


extent 


extent 




2 


3 


4 




2 


3 


4 




2 


3 


4 




2 


3 


4 




2 


3 


4 




2 


3 


4 



Not 
at all 



Small Moderate Great 
extent extent extent 



a. 
b. 
c. 

d. 
e. 



Create or perform works of art 1 

Teach one of the arts 1 

View and respond to works of art (e.g., attend museums, galleries, 

musical ortheatrical performances, etc.) 1 

Study, critique, or write about the arts 1 

Provide arts leadership in your community or state 1 



2 
2 

2 
2 
2 



3 
3 

3 
3 
3 



4 
4 

4 
4 
4 



THANK YOU. PLEASE KEEP A COPY FOR YOUR RECORDS. 



C-24 



1994 FRSS ARTS EDUCATION SURVEY INSTRUMENTS 



C-25 



C-26 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20208-5651 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ARTS EDUCATION SURVEY 



O.M.B.No.: 1850-0704 
EXPIRATION DATE: 10/95 



FAST RESPONSE SURVEY SYSTEM _ 

This survey is authorized by law (20 U.S.C. 1221e-l). While you are not required to respond, your cooperation is 
needed to make the results of this survey comprehensive, accurate, and timely. 



DEFINITIONS FOR THIS SURVEY: 

Artist-in-Residence - A visual, literary, or performing artist or folklorist who visits a school for an extended period for the 

purposes of teaching artistic techniques and concepts, conducting inservice teacher training, or consulting in the development 

of curricula. Artists-in-Residence may be sponsored by the district or by the school directly. 
Creative writing specialist - A certified education professional who has expertise in creative writing and is responsible for a 

school's creative writing program. 
Classroom teacher - A certified education professional who instructs students in a broad range of subject areas on a regular 

basis. 
Dance specialist - An education professional who is certified to teach dance. 
District - An education agency at the local level that exists primarily to operate public schools. In this questionnaire, the term 

"district" includes smaller units of administration, such as areas. 
Drama/theatre specialist - A certified education professional who has expertise in drama/theatre and is responsible for a 

school's drama/theatre program. 
Music - An instructional program that generally describes the study and appreciation of music, and the study of music 

performance. Includes instruction in music appreciation, music theory, the historical development of music, the 

fundamentals of various musical instruments, and vocal and instrumental (band and orchestra) performance. 
Music specialist - An education professional who is certified to teach general, vocal, or instrumental music. 
Technology - Instructional tools such as computers, 1- and 2-way video, CD-ROM, telecommunications, multimedia, 

hypermedia, networks, etc. that are incorporated in instructional components in order to enhance teaching and learning in the 

arts. 
Visual arts - An instructional program of arts disciplines that includes fine arts, communication and design arts, architecture and 

environmental arts, and crafts such as ceramics, jewelry, and works in wood, paper, and other materials. 
Visual arts specialist - An education professional who is certified to teach visual arts. 



AFFIX LABEL HERE 



IF ABOVE INFORMATION IS INCORRECT, PLEASE CORRECT DIRECTLY ON LABEL. 

Name of person completing form: Telephone: 



Title: 



Best days and times to reach you (in case of questions): 



Fax#: 



RETURN COMPLETED FORM TO: 

WESTAT 

1650 Research Boulevard 
Rockville, Maryland 20850 
Attention: 928162 



IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS, CALL: 

Nancy Carey 

1-800-937-8281, Ext. 4467 
Fax#: 1-301-517-4134 



Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 30 minutes per response, including the time for reviewing 
instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of 
information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for 
reducing this burden, to the U.S. Department of Education, Information Management and Compliance Division, Washington, D.C. 20202-4651; 
and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project 1850-0704, Washington, D.C. 20503. 

NCESFormNo. 2379-50, 10/94 



C-27 



Please refer to the list of definitions on the cover page of this 
questionnaire for terms or phrases that are printed in bold type. 

1 . Does this school offer instruction in visual arts? (Circle one.) 

Yes 1 No 2{SkiptoQ8) 

2. How is visual arts primarily taught at this school? (Circle one.) 

In a separate class taught by a visual arts specialist 1 

By the classroom teachers 2 

By both visual arts specialists and classroom teachers 3 

3. On average, approximately how many minutes of class time is 
devoted to separate instruction in visual arts each week? 

a. From a visual arts specialist 

b. From the classroom teacher 



4. How many visual arts specialists are on this school's staff? 
(Consider itinerant teachers who teach at more than one school as 
part time.) 



a. Full time 



b. Part time 



5. Does this school currently have a specially equipped space used 
primarily for teaching visual arts? (Circle one.) 



Yes. 



1 



No. 



6. Does your district provide written curriculum guidelines in visual 
arts instruction? (Circle one.) 



Yes. 



1 



No. 



7. Do visual arts specialists at this school include any of the following 
activities in their teaching? (Circle one number in each row. If this 
school has no visual arts specialists, skip to Q8.) 



a. Integrate other academic subjects into 
their visual arts instruction 

b. Consult with classroom teachers on 
incorporating visual arts into the 
teaching of other academic subjects . 

c. Collaborate or team teach with other 
arts specialists 



Yes 

1 



No 

2 



Don't 
know 



1 



8. Does this school offer music instruction in the following areas: 
(Circle one number in each row.) 

a. General music? 

b. Vocal music? 

c. Instrumental music? 

If you answered "No" for a, b, and c, skip to Q15. 

9. How is music primarily taught at this school? (Circle one.) 



es 


No 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 



In a separate class taught by a music specialist 

By the classroom teachers 

By both music specialists and classroom teachers . 



1 

2 
3 



10. On average, approximately how many minutes of class time is 
devoted to separate instruction in music each week? 



a. From a music specialist 

b. From the classroom teacher . 



11. How many music specialists, including general, vocal, and 
instrumental instructors, are on this school's staff? (Consider 
itinerant teachers who teach at more than one school as part time.) 



a. Full time 



b. Part time 



12. Does this school currently have a specially equipped space used 
primarily for teaching music? (Circle one.) 



Yes. 



1 



No. 



13. Does your district provide written curriculum guidelines in music 
instruction? (Circle one.) 



Yes. 



1 



No. 



14. Do music specialists at this school include any of the following 

activities in their teaching? (Circle one number in each row. If this 

school has no music specialists, skip to Q15.) 

Don't 
Yes No know 

a. Integrate other academic subjects 

into their music instruction 1 2 3 

b. Consult with classroom teachers on 
incorporating music into the 

teaching of other academic subjects.. 1 2 3 

c. Collaborate or team teach with 

other arts specialists 1 2 3 

15. Does this school include dance in its instructional program? (Circle 
all that apply.) 

Yes, in a separate class taught by a dance specialist 1 

Yes, as part of the physical education program taught 

by a dance specialist 2 

Yes, as part of the physical education program taught 

by a physical education teacher 3 

No : 4 

16. Which of the following statements best describes this school's 
approach to teaching drama/theatre? (Circle only one.) 

Drama is taught as a separate subject by a drama/ 

theatre specialist 1 

Drama is part of the language arts curriculum 2 

Drama is not part of the school's curriculum, but 

dramatic activities such as enacting stories 

or plays are used by classroom teachers in 

teaching other subjects 3 

Drama/theatre is not part of the curriculum 4 

17. Which of the following statements best describes this school's 
creative writing program? (Circle only one.) 

A creative writing specialist on the school's staff works 
directly with students on a regular basis and consults 
with teachers on writing programs for students 1 

A creative writing specialist on the school's staff consults 

with teachers on writing programs for students 2 

A creative writing specialist from the district provides 

materials and activities to classroom teachers 3 

An outside specialist or writer works directly with 

students or teachers on an invitational basis 4 

Creative writing is part of the language arts curriculum 5 



C-28 



18. Does your school district have an arts coordinator or curriculum 
specialist in the arts who is responsible for the educational program 
offered in the arts? (Circle one.) 

Yes 1 No 2 

19. During the 1993-94 year, did your school or district offer inservice 
training or other professional development activities in the arts? 
(Circle one.) 

Yes 1 No 2 

20. Has this school had an Artist-in-Residence in any of the following 
areas during the past 5 years? (Circle one number in each row. If 
this school has had no Artists-in-Residence, skip to Q22) 



Creative writing . 

Dance 

Drama/theatre 

Folklore 

Music 

Visual arts 







Don't 


Yes 


No 


know 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


1 


- 2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 



21. In general, what did the Artist-in-Residence program contribute to 
this school's arts program? (Circle all that apply.) 

1 

2 
3 



Provided input on curriculum development 

Provided knowledge about art forms or arts education 

through teacher inservice training 

Provided knowledge about art forms to students through 

exhibition or instruction 



22. In what arts subject(s) does this school use or integrate technology in 
its teaching? (Circle all that apply.) 



Creative writing 1 

Dance 2 

Drama/theatre 3 



Music 4 

Visual arts 5 

None 6 



23. Please indicate the extent of parental involvement in the arts program 
at this school. (Circle one number in each row. If your school does 
not sponsor a program listed, circle "5" for "not applicable.") 

Great Moderate Little None NA 



a. Sponsoring fund raising 












activities for the arts 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


b. Sponsoring art exhibitions 




or visiting performers 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


c. Volunteering in arts 












programs 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


d. Attending school arts 












events 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 



24. In 1993-94, approximately how many of the following presentations 
of students' work outside of their own classrooms took place at this 
school? 

Formal 
Informal (for parents 

(for the school) or community) 

a. Visual arts exhibitions 

b. Musical performances 

c. Theatrical performances 

d. Dance performances 



25. Does this school publish a literary magazine of students' work? 
(Circle one.) 

Yes 1 No 2 

26. Compared to 5 years ago, please indicate how each of the following 
aspects of this school's arts program has changed. (Circle one 
number in each row.) 

Remained None 

Increased the same Decreased available 

a. Instruction time 1 2 3 

b. Enrollment 12 3- 

c. Number of arts staff. 12 3- 

d. Allocation of supplies 

and materials 12 3 4 

e. Funds for teachers' 

classroom use 12 3 4 

f. Use of museums, 
galleries, performance 

centers, etc 12 3 4 

27. To what extent do the following make decisions regarding the arts 
program at this school? (Circle one number in each row.) 

Great Moderate Small None 

a. State 12 3 4 

b. District 12 3 4 

c. School administrators 12 3 4 

d. Schoolteachers 12 3 4 

e. Parents 12 3 4 

28. Are you aware of the voluntary National Standards for Arts 
Education? (Circle one.) 

Yes 1 No 2{SkiptoQ30) 

29. Is your school incorporating any of the Standards? 

Yes 1 

No 2 

Don't know 3 

30. How long is the typical school day for most students at this school? 
(If the length of day varies by day or grade level, record the longest 
day.) hours minutes 

31. Is this school a magnet or specialized school designed to offer 
primarily arts education to elementary students? (Circle one.) 

Yes 1 

No 2 

No, but there is one in our district 3 

32. In your opinion, how important is education in the arts relative to 
other academic subjects? (Circle one number in each row.) 



Creative writing. 

Dance 

Drama/theatre .... 

Music 

Visual arts 



Essenti; 

1 


il 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


Ui 

4 
4 
4 
4 
4 


fiimportant 

5 


1 


5 


1 


5 


1 


5 


1 


5 



THANK YOU. 



C-29 



C-30 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20208-5651 

SECONDARY SCHOOL ARTS EDUCATION SURVEY 

FAST RESPONSE SURVEY SYSTEM 



O.M.B.No.: 1850-0704 
EXPIRATION DATE: 10/95 



This survey is authorized by law (20 U.S.C. 1221e-l). While you are not required to respond, your cooperation is 
needed to make the results of this survey comprehensive, accurate, and timely. 



DEFINITIONS FOR THIS SURVEY: 

Artist-in-Residence - A visual, literary, or performing artist or folklorist who visits a school for an extended period for the 

purposes of teaching artistic techniques and concepts, conducting inservice teacher training, or consulting in the development 

of curricula. Artists-in-Residence may be sponsored by the district or the school directly. 
Creative writing - An instructional program that describes the process and techniques of original composition in various literary 

forms, such as short stories, plays, and poetry. 
Dance - An instructional program that prepares students to express themselves through the performance of one or more of the 

dance disciplines, including ballet, modern, jazz, ethnic, and folk dance, and that describes dance as a cultural phenomenon. 

Includes instruction in choreography, dance history and criticism, and dance production. 
District - An education agency at the local level that exists primarily to operate public schools. In this questionnaire, the term 

"district" includes smaller units of administration, such as areas. 
Drama/theatre - An instructional program that generally describes the study of dramatic works and their performance. Includes 

instruction in dramatic literature, dramatic styles and types, and the principle of organizing and producing plays. 
Music - An instructional program that generally describes the study and appreciation of music, and the study of music 

performance. Includes instruction in music appreciation, music theory, the historical development of music, the 

fundamentals of various musical instruments, and vocal and instrumental (band and orchestra) performance. 
Technology - Instructional tools such as computers, 1- and 2-way video, CD-ROM, telecommunications, multimedia, 

hypermedia, networks, etc. that are incorporated in instructional components in order to enhance teaching and learning in the 

arts. 
Yisual arts - An instructional program of arts disciplines that includes fine arts, communication and design arts, architecture and 

environmental arts, and crafts such as ceramics, jewelry, and works in wood, paper, and other materials. 



AFFIX LABEL HERE 



IF ABOVE INFORMATION IS INCORRECT, PLEASE CORRECT DIRECTLY ON LABEL. 



Name of person completing form: 



Telephone: 



Title: 



Fax#: 



Best days and times to reach you (in case of questions): 



RETURN COMPLETED FORM TO: 

WESTAT 

1650 Research Boulevard 
Rockville, Maryland 20850 
Attention: 928162 


IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS, CALL: 

Nancy Carey 

1-800-937-8281, Ext. 4467 
Fax#: 1-301-517-4134 



Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 30 minutes per response, including the time for reviewing 
instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of 
information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for 
reducing this burden, to the U.S. Department of Education, Information Management and Compliance Division, Washington, D.C. 20202-4651; 
and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project 1850-0704, Washington, D.C. 20503. 

NCES Form No. 2379-50, 10/94 



C-31 



Please refer to the list of definitions on the cover page of this questionnaire for terms or phrases that are printed in bold type. 



Please answer questions 1 through 6 for each subject listed to the right. 



Creative 
writing 



Dance 



Drama/ 
theatre 



Music 



Visual 
arts 



1. Does this school offer separate instruction in the arts subjects listed here? 
If your school offers NO instruction in a particular subject, skip that column 
for questions 2-6. 



Yes No 



Yes No Yes No 



Yes No Yes No 



4. 



How many separate courses does this school offer in each subject? 

{Count different sections of the same course as I course.) 

How many full and part time teachers taught one or more courses in each 

subject during the 1993-94 school year? 

What was the approximate total enrollment in each subject during 

the 1993-94 school year? 



5. How many specially equipped spaces/labs/studios, including practice 
rooms, does this school allocate for courses taught in the subject? 



Does your district provide written curriculum guidelines in the subject 
for the arts teachers to follow? 



Yes No Yes No 



Yes No 



Yes No Yes No 



7. Does your school district have an arts coordinator or curriculum specialist in the arts who is responsible for the educational program offered 
in the arts? (Circle one.) 

Yes 1 No 2 

8. During the 1 993-94 school year, did your school or district offer inservice training or other professional development activities in the arts? 
(Circle one.) 



Yes 



No 



9. Has this school had an Artist-in-Residence in any of the following areas during the past 5 years? (Circle one number in each row. If this 
school has had no Artists-in-Residence, skip to Qll.) 

Yes No Don't know 



Creative writing. 

Dance 

Drama/theatre.... 

Folklore 

Music 

Visual arts 



1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 



10. In general, what did the Artist-in-Residence program contribute to this school's arts program? (Circle all that apply.) 

Provided input on curriculum development 1 

Provided knowledge about art forms or arts education through teacher inservice training 2 

Provided knowledge about art forms to students through exhibition or instruction 3 

1 1. In what arts subject(s) does this school use or integrate technology in its teaching? (Circle all that apply.) 



Creative writing 1 

Dance 2 

Drama/theatre 3 



Music 4 

Visual arts 5 

None 6 



12. Please indicate the extent of parental involvement in the arts program at this school. (Circle one number in each row. If your school does 
not sponsor a program listed, circle "5 "for "not applicable. ") 



a. Sponsoring Booster Clubs 

b. Sponsoring fund raising activities for the arts 

c. Sponsoring art exhibitions or visiting performers.... 

d. Volunteering in arts programs 

e. Attending school arts events 



Great 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 



Moderate 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



Little 

3 
3 

3 
3 
3 



None 

4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



NA 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 



C-32 



13. In 1993-94, approximately how many of the following presentations of students' work outside of their own classrooms took place at this 

school? _ 

Formal 

Informal (for parents 

(for the school) or community) 

a. Visual arts exhibitions 

b. Musical performances 

c. Theatrical performances 

d. Dance performances 

14. Does this school publish a literary magazine of students' work? (Circle one.) Yes 1 No 2 



15. Compared to 5 years ago, please indicate how each of the following aspects of this school's arts program has changed. {Circle one number 
in each row.) 

a. Number of courses 

b. Enrollment 

c. Number of arts staff 

d. Allocation of supplies and materials 

e. Funds for teachers' classroom use 

f. Use of museums, galleries, performance 
centers, etc 





Remained 




None 


Increased 


the same 


Decreased 


available 


1 


2 


3 


. 


1 


2 


3 


- 


1 


2 


3 


- 


1 


2 


3 


4 


1 


2 


3 


4 



16. To what extent do the following make decisions regarding the arts program at this school? (Circle one number in each row.) 

Great Moderate Small None 

a. State 12 3 4 

b. District 12 3 4 

c. School administrators 12 3 4 

d. Schoolteachers 12 3 4 

e. Parents 12 3 4 

17. Are you aware of the voluntary National Standards for Arts Education? (Circle one.) Yes 1 No 2 (Skip to Q19) 

18. Is your school incorporating any of the Standards? 

Yes 1 

No 2 

Don't know 3 

19. Is this school a magnet or specialized school designed to offer primarily arts education to intermediate or secondary students? (Circle one.) 

Yes 1 

No 2 

No, but there is one in our district 3 

20. In your opinion, how important is education in the arts relative to other academic subjects? (Circle one number in each row.) 

Essential Unimportant 

Creative writing 12 3 4 5 

Dance 12 3 4 5 

Drama/theatre 12 3 4 5 

Music 12 3 4 5 

Visual arts 12 3 4 5 



IF YOUR SCHOOL IS AN INTERMEDIATE OR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL, DO NOT CONTINUE. THANK YOU. 



21. Is taking an arts course a requirement for graduation at your school? (Circle one.) 
a. Yes, credit specifically in the arts is required for graduation 



b. Yes, credit in the arts is an option within a specified group of subjects that fulfill a requirement 

(e.g., arts or foreign language or computer science) 2 

c. No, there is no arts requirement for graduation 3 

22. (If "yes" to 21a or 21b) How many credits in the arts are required? 

THANK YOU. 
C-33 



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